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  Chinese Art and Architecture: An Annotated List of Recent Works in Western Languages
 
 

 

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Introduction

The Chinese art studies in the West began as early as the mid-19th century, with the focus mainly on ceramics, other decorative arts, and some paintings then known to the West. The intellectual and methodological developments in art history and Sinology, but more profoundly the growth of systematic archaeology in China which resulted in numerous datable materials, provided tremendous impetus to the study of Chinese art, with researchers and art historians making great strides, discovering, confirming, re-constructing and reinterpreting art in China. Archaeological sites and Buddhist caves were visited and documented, translations of Chinese texts and catalogues of Chinese art were published, in which Japanese scholars took the lead with the Western scholars not much behind.

In Europe and America, earlier scholars struggled at the beginning to interpret early Chinese art with limited available data. It was the philologers, such as Bernard Karlgren, who first studied inscriptions on bronze vessels, jades and other early art. Max Loehr (1903-1988) was the first one in the U.S.; he wrote The Bronze Styles of the Anyang Period (1953), dealing with the stylistic evolution of decoration on bronze vessels. Later studies by scholars, such as K.C. Chang, Robert Bagley and Jessica Rawson, would focus more on the origin and meaning of decoration, regional styles and the relationship between bronzes and political power.

The first systematic studies of Chinese sculpture were made by Japanese as well as European scholars, among them Victor Segalen (1878-1919) and Osvald Siren (1879-1966). In the field of ceramics, long prized by the Westerners, great contributions were made by collection catalogues, such as those by the British Museum and by individuals, such as Augustus Franks (1826-1897), Stephen Bushell (1844-1908) and Robert Hobson (1872-1941). Among the early efforts in the field of Chinese painting was the historical survey entitled an Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial Art, published in 1905 by Herbert Allen Giles (1845-1935) and based on Chinese sources. Later works were done by John Calvin Ferguson (1866-1945) and Arthur Waley (1889-1966).

Rapid development in the study of Chinese art took place after World War II, the most notable publication being Osvald Siren's 7-volume Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and Principles, published in 1956-1958. In the U.S., the pioneers were James Cahill, Richard Edwards, Wen Fong, Sherman Lee, Chu-tsing Li, Max Loehr, Alexander Soper, Michael Sullivan, Harrie Vanderstappen and William Watson, some of them still actively researching and publishing. The Anew@ generations from the '70s and '80s began to reevaluate earlier conclusions and theories, rewrite histories, and find new methodologies, including interdisciplinary comparisons and technological examinations. The recent archaeological excavations and subsequent research have resulted in a tremendous amount of literature not only in China but also in Europe and the U.S. Instead of isolated efforts by each scholar, East Asian art historians are actively exchanging their research results and their views by creating discussion panels and forums at the annual conferences of the College Art Association and the Association for Asian Studies (AAS) and various symposia. For instance, last year the Museum Committee for Asian Art and Culture was formed within AAS, and one of the topics of discussions at the Japanese Art History Forum at the 1999 Association for Asian Studies meeting in Boston was publishing of Japanese art books.

For more in-depth reading on East Asian art studies in the United States, Warren I. Cohen=s book, East Asian Art and American Culture (New York : Columbia University Press, 1992), so far the most informative history of East Asian art studies, is recommended. The first brief chapter is on the period before 1900. It is followed by chapters on the Agolden age@ of collecting from 1893 to1919, the beginning of scholarship, further collecting in 1920s and 1930s, and the period of WWII and post-WWII; the last chapter is on East Asian art historians with their various approaches and theoretical arguments. It is also entertaining with anecdotes. Another work, Europe studies China: Papers from an International Conference on the History of European Sinology (London : Han Shan-tang Books, 1995), describes initial contributions made by European missionaries to Sinological studies, the development of such studies during the 19th century, and increasing progress in the 20th century, especially in recent decades, due to China=s sweeping changes. Papers also included interesting stories about the collecting of Chinese art in various European countries.


Table of Contents


Buddhist and Daoist Art

The following titles focus on Buddhism and Daoism, the iconography and their influences on Chinese art. Buddhist and Daoist art may be represented in various forms, such as architecture, sculpture, bronzes.

Chen, Kenneth H. The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Useful for an overview of the Chinese transformation of Buddhism.

Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

The work has 16 volumes, including the index. Entries on Oriental religions are detailed. No illustrations.

Fisher, Robert E. Buddhist Art and Architecture. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1993.

Provides a general introduction to Buddhist art in Asia. Chapters deal with India and neighboring regions, China, Korea, Japan and Southeast Asia.

The Flowering of a Foreign Faith: New Studies in Chinese Buddhist Art, edited by Janet Baker. New Delhi: Marg Publication, 1998.

Contains essays focusing on the characteristics of Chinese Buddhist art, by Koichi Shinohara, Judy Chungwa Ho, Nancy Steinhardt, Wu Hung, Janet Baker, Denise Leidy, Marylin Rhie, and Angela F. Howard.

Fong, Mary H. "The iconography of the popular Gods of Happiness, Emolument, and Longevity (Fu Lu Shou)," Artibus Asiae vol. 44, no. 2/3, p. 159-199.

The creation of the three gods in the late Ming and their growth in popularity everywhere in China are discussed and illustrated. The paper focuses on their origin and the artistic influences in iconography.

Howard, Angela Falco. The Imagery of the Cosmological Buddha. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1986.

Deals with Gautama Buddha in sculpture and Buddhist cosmology.

The Image of the Buddha, general editor David L. Snellgrove. Tokyo: Kodansha/UNESCO, 1978.

Comprehensive coverage of image of the Buddha, including China.

In the Footsteps of the Buddha: an Iconic Journey from India to China. Hong Kong: 1998.

Catalog of an exhibition of 120 or so objects from various collections of the world, tracing the development of Buddhist art in South, Southeast and Central Asia, from the 2nd century B.C. to the 13th century, A.D. The Silk Road is also featured.

Little, Stephen. Realm of the Immortals: Daoism in the Arts of China. Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1988.

Catalog of a modest exhibition at Cleveland Museum in 1988, it presents a subject matter not extensively studied. The author gives a brief historical introduction to Daoism and its influence on and representation in Chinese art.

Munsterberg, Hugo. Chinese Buddhist Bronzes. New York: 1988.

Discussion of Buddhist bronzes as aesthetic pieces and religious icons.

Oort, H.A. van. The Iconography of Chinese Buddhism in Traditional China. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1986.

Covers the period of 3rd-6th centuries (Six dynasties and the Northern dynasties) as the dawn of Buddhist art, and 10th-13th centuries (Tang, Liao and Jin), the golden age of Buddhist art, with emphasis on Buddhist iconography.

Rhie, Marylin M. Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia. Leiden, The Netherlands : Brill, 1999-

A comprehensive study of Buddhist art, using various written evidence, physical evidence, and archaeological finds, including those of Russian archaeology. Volume 1 begins with the Han dynasty with the beginning of Buddhism and Buddhist art in China and western and eastern Central Asia.

Seckel, Dietrich. Buddhist Art of East Asia [Buddhistische Kunst Ostasiens. English] Bellingham, WA: Western Washington University, 1989.

An overview of Buddhist art in East Asia, including China.

Sickman, Laurence and Alexander Soper. The Art and Architecture of China. Harmondsworth. U. K.: Penguin, reprint ed. 1978.

Includes chapters on Buddhist art, such as "Beginning of Buddhist sculpture."

Weidner, Marsha, ed. Latter Days of the Law: Images of Chinese Buddhism, 850-1850. Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art, The University of Kansas, in association with University of Hawaii Press, 1994.

Surveying Buddhism-inspired pictorial art from the late Tang, the essays accompanying an exhibition at the Spencer Museum bring together a wide range of pictures from woodblock prints to fine paintings.

Whitfield, Roderick and Anne Farrer. Caves of the Thousand Buddhas: Chinese Art from the Silk Road. New York: Braziller, 1990.

Catalog of a 1990 exhibition of the Stein collection of Central Asian antiquities at the British Museum.

Wright, Arthur F. Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959.

Discussion of Buddhism in China from an historical point of view, from the early Han dynasty to modern times.

Wu, Hung. "Buddhist Elements in Early Chinese art (2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.)," Artibus Asiae vol. 47, no. 3/4 (1986), p. 263-352.

Discussing different views among scholars as to how to identify early Chinese Buddhist art, the work provides iconographic elements both in textual evidence and images found from the early periods.

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Archaeology

Thanks to intense archaeological research in the last 50 years and to the rich textual records, the study of the origin of Chinese civilization has begun to evolve and yield tremendous results. Understanding of the origin and growth of civilization in China, discerning the characteristic patterns and comparing them with those of other ancient civilizations will lead to understanding of ancient world history. However, Chinese and Western archaeology are very different. Chinese archaeology lacks evolutionary or developmental theory and ignores the role of the environment in the formation of sites or selection of site locations. Also, the length of time in China treated as historic is much longer. Excavation techniques are similar to those used in the West, but there are differences.

Aigner, Jean S. Archaeological Remains in Pleistocene China. Bonn : Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut, 1981.

Chang, Kwang-chih. Shang Civilization. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980.

Presents a comprehensive history of the Shang civilization (ca.18-12th century, B.C.), emphasizing the need for such a book to be based on all sources for Shang scholars. Part 1 centers on Anyang, the capital of the dynasty; part 2 discusses other sites, such as Erligang, Zhengzhou, and general issues concerning the Shang civilization.

_____. The Archaeology of Ancient China. 4th ed. Rev. and enlarged. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. (The first 3 editions published in 1963, 1968 and 1977)

As the author indicates, the work has been rewritten, with two major changes. It does not cover the whole field and does not cite all available references, and it ends with the rise of civilization.

Chinese Archaeological Abstracts, edited by Richard C. Rudolph et al. Los Angeles: Institute of Archaeology, University of California, 1978-1985.

A 4-volume abstract work of three important Chinese languages journals, Kaogu, Kaoguxuebao and Wenwu, with illustrations and indexes.

Elisseeff, Danielle and Vadime. New Discoveries in China: Encountering History Through Archaeology. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books, 1983.

The book describes changes undergone since 1949 and the beginning of systematic excavations and archaeological discoveries. The sources cited date as late as 1981.

Hsu, Cho-yun and Katheryn M. Linduff. Western Chou Civilization. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Covers the period of 11th-771 B.C., providing background of the Neolithic and Shang period, with an overview of the history of the Zhou dynasty, as well as the arts and crafts.

Keightley, David N., ed. The Origins of Chinese Civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Contains papers by archaeologists, art historians, and other scholars of various disciplines, discussing the topic of early cultural development in China.

Li, Hsüeh-ch’in. Eastern Zhou and Qin Civilization, (Early Chinese civilizations series), translated by K.C. Chang. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Provides an overview of the period between 770 and 207 B.C., describing various states, and archaeological finds such as bronzes, gold and silver, jades, lacquer, silk, coinage, seals and inscribed tablets.

Nelson, Sarah Milledge, ed. The Archaeology of Northeast China: Beyond the Great Wall. London: Routledge, 1995.

Contains eight papers by Chinese archaeologists who, on the one hand, emphasize, the importance of the connections between northeast and central China focusing on common themes, similar art motifs, and ceremonial commonalities, but, on the other hand, point out the contrasts between the archaeological sites of two areas.

Rawson, Jessica. Ancient China: Art and Archaeology. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

Divided into five chapters by period, the Neolithic, Shang, Western Zhou, Eastern Zhou and Han dynasties, the book is intended as a companion to the British Museum’s collection of early Chinese art and archaeological material, but serves as a general historical survey of Chinese art to 220 A.D.

Studies of Shang Archaeology: Selected Papers from the International Conference on Shang Civilization, edited by K.C. Chang. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

Contains scholarly papers on the Shang civilization, on oracle bones, bronzes, classification of Shang jades, etc.

Watson, William. Studies in Chinese Archaeology and Art. London: The Pindar Press, 1997.

Contains essays written by the author over 50 years on Chinese archaeology and art.

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Furniture

Berliner, Nancy ... et al. Beyond the Screen: Chinese Furniture of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1996.

Catalog of an exhibition focusing on the function and placement of the furniture in a domestic setting. There has been increasing interest in traditional Chinese furniture both in China and in the West. The Ming furniture is especially treasured because of its design and craftsmanship.

_____. Friends of the House: Furniture from China’s Towns and Villages. Salem, MA: Peabody Essex Museum, 1996.

Catalog of an exhibition at Peabody Museum, the work places pieces of Chinese furniture in a social milieu with photographs of China’s villages, homes, and social customs.

Clunas, Craig. Chinese Furniture. London: Bamboo Pub. Ltd., 1988.

A concise book containing color illustrations and a discussion on the Chinese furniture industry and materials used in furniture-making.

Ecke, Gustav. Chinese Domestic Furniture in Photographs and Measured Drawings. New York: Dover, 1986.

Reprint of the 1944 edition, with the publisher’s note on the technical improvement in format and presentation, adding table of contents, page numbering, and translation of the original Chinese colophon.

Ellsworth, Robert Hatfield. Chinese Furniture. New York: Random House, 1986.

A lavishly produced book with many color illustrations, it discusses the background of Chinese furniture. Is a good pictorial reference.

_____. Chinese Furniture: One Hundred Examples from the Mimi and Raymond Hung Collection. New York: Privately published, 1996.

Featuring one of the finest private collections of Chinese furniture, the work also provides an historical overview on how Chinese furniture has been collected and collecting in the late 1980s and the 1990s.

_____. Essence of Style: Chinese Furniture of the Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties. San Francisco: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1997.

Catalog of an exhibition at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, focusing on the aesthetic and technical aspects of the Ming and Qing furniture.

Journal of the Classical Chinese Furniture Society, ISSN 1054-9080. Renaissance, CA: The Society, 1990-1994.

The quarterly journal was published between 1990 and 1994.

T’ien, Chia-ch’ing. Classical Chinese Furniture of the Qing Dynasty [Ch’ing tai chia chü. English]. London: Philip Wilson, 1996.

Covers the Qing dynasty (1644-1912) furniture.

Wang, Shih-hsiang. Classic Chinese Furniture: Ming and Early Qing Dynasties [Ming shih chia chü chen shang. English]. San Francisco: China Books & Periodicals, 1986.

Written by the authority on Chinese furniture, the work was reissued in Chicago by Art Media Resources, 1991. It presents the best information on Chinese furniture of the Ming and early Qing periods.

_____. Connoisseurship in Chinese Furniture. Hong Kong: Joint Pub. Co., 1989.

A two-volume work, it covers a wide range of topics including construction of furniture and issues on dating and alterations of Chinese furniture.

_____ and Curtis Evarts. Masterpieces from the Museum of Classical Chinese Furniture. Chicago; San Francisco: Chinese Art Foundation, 1995.

Catalog of the collection of the Museum of Classical Chinese Furniture.

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Glass

An, Chia-yao, "Early Chinese Glassware," Oriental Ceramic Society Translations; no. 12. Hong Kong: Millennia, 1987. 46 p.

Translation of a scholarly article originally published in Kaogu xuebao, 1984. The author uses archaeological finds to provide an overview of early glass in China from the Han to Northern Song. Finds include objects of Roman, Sasanian and Persian origins and those of domestic production from various tombs in Shaanxi, Hebei, Hubei and Gansu provinces. It also describes their shapes and usages.

Brown, Claudia and Donald Rabner. Clear as Crustal, Red as Flame: Later Chinese Glass. New York: China Institute in America, 1990.

An exhibition catalog with discussions on Chinese glass from many North American collections. Also provides background information on glass workshops in Qing dynasty China.

A Chorus of Colors: Chinese Glass from Three American Collections, edited by Michael Morrison, catalogue entries by Claudia Brown. San Francisco: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995.

Catalog of an exhibition at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco of three private collections, providing color illustrations of objects dating from the Han to the Qing period.

Scientific Research in Early Chinese Glass: Proceedings of the Archaeometry of Glass Sessions of the 1984 International Symposium on Glass, Beijing, September 7, 1984, edited by Robert H. Brill and John Martin. Corning: The Corning Museum of Glass, 1991.

Part 1 consists of scientific data; part 2 contains supplementary papers on the Qing dynasty glassmaking, early glass finds from Zhou dynasty tombs, and the glass collection of the Museum of Chinese History.

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Jade

Born, Gerald M. Chinese Jade: An Annotated Bibliography. Chicago: Celadon Press, 1982.

Lists both Chinese sources (but only a small section and in romanization) and English sources (forming the majority of the bibliography), with general and title indexes. Sources used date from 1880 to 1981.

Bulletin of the Friends of Jade. ISSN 0261-7080. Wallington, England: Friends of Jade, 1980-

Annual, 1980-1981, biennial since 1983. Latest issue no. 9 (1996)

Chinese Jade Animals. Hong Kong: The Urban Council of Hong Kong, 1996.

In English and Chinese, the exhibition catalog provides fine examples of jade carvings of animal figures and zodiac signs.

Chou, Mark. Dictionary of Jade Nomenclature. Hong Kong: The Author, 1987.

Dictionary for quick reference. Entries are both in English, romanized and Chinese characters.

Goldsmith, Joan Hartman. Chinese Jade [Images of Asia]. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

The work is a concise introduction to the history of Chinese jade from the Neolithic time to the 20th century, written for the collector.

Ip, Yee. Chung-kuo yü tiao = Chinese Jade Carving. Hong Kong: Urban Council, 1983.

Catalog of an exhibition of jade objects from renowned Hong Kong private collectors. The work consists of mainly of objects with descriptions both in Chinese and English, and a brief introduction to jade and its materials and the dating of jade.

Magic, Art and Order: Jade in Chinese Culture. Palm Spring: Palm Springs Desert Museum, 1990.

Catalog of a 1990 exhibition, introduced by Robert Fisher, presenting some representative pieces of various periods of the history of Chinese jade from the Neolithic time to the Qing dynasty.

Rawson, Jessica. Chinese Jade from the Neolithic to the Qing. London: British Museum, 1995.

Catalog of an exhibition and the collection of Sir Joseph Hotung, covering the time from the Neolithic to the Qing dynasty. The work discusses the archaeological, social and intellectual aspects of Chinese jade.

Teng, Shu-p’ing. Ku kung po wu yüan ts’ang hsin shih ch’i shih tai yü ch’i t’u lu = Neolithic Jades in the Collection of the National Palace Museum. Taipei: The Museum, 1992.

In Chinese and English. The collection catalog introduces 127 selected pieces in different shapes and form for different functions, and discusses jade culture in Neolithic period and its characteristics.

Watt, James C.Y. Chinese Jades from Han to Ch’ing. New York: Asia Society, 1980.

Catalog of an exhibition with an introductory essay covering the history, dating and styles of jades. The objects, grouped by forms, such as animals, birds, fishes, human figures, are given detailed descriptions.

_____ and assisted by Michael Knight. Chinese Jades from the Collection of the Seattle Art Museum. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum, 1989.

Seattle Art Museum’s jade collection is recognized for the refined workmanship, variety of stone and comprehensive nature of the objects ranging from the Neolithic period to the 20th century. The catalog lists 109 of the finest pieces from the museum collection.

Yang, Chien-fang. Chung-kuo ch’u t’u ku yü = Jade Carving in Chinese Archaeology. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1987-

So far only vol. 1 published. In Chinese and English. Each entry is given a description, measurements, provenance, and bibliography.

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Lacquer

2000 Years of Chinese Lacquer. Hong Kong: Oriental Ceramic Society of Hong Kong and Art Gallery, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1993.

Catalog of an exhibition jointly presented by the Society and the University Art Gallery, in 1993, lavishly illustrated, with each piece described in detail and an informative introduction to Chinese lacquer, its origin, development and the workshops where lacquerware was made. A special chapter deals with the lacquered zither, an ancient Chinese musical instrument.

Clifford, Derek. Chinese Carved Lacquer. London: Bamboo, 1992.

The work introduces, with illustrations, lacquerware from the 9th century to the modern day.

Garner, Sir Harry. Chinese Lacquer. London: Faber and Faber, 1979.

The work was written before the great archaeological discoveries. Examples used are before 1974. But it is a thorough study on lacquer which covers topics such as distribution of lacquer trees in East Asia, the origins of lacquer, mother-of-pearl lacquer and painted lacquer.

Hu-pei ch’u t’u Chan kuo Ch’in Han ch’i ch’i = Lacquerware from the Warring States to the Han Periods Excavated in Hubei Province. Wu-han: Hu-pei sheng po wu kuan; Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1994.

Catalog of an exhibition in Chinese and English of objects from the so-called "high period" of the Warring States, Qin and Western Han in lacquerware production (475 B.C.-220 A.D.). It also surveys archaeological discoveries, production of lacquerware, shapes and decorative motifs, and coloring.

Lee, Yu-kuan. Oriental Lacquer Art. New York: Weatherhill, 1972.

Still a good source, although some of the dating is now considered incorrect.

Prüch, Margarete. Die Lacke der Westlichen Han-Zeit (206 v.-6.n. Chr.): Bestand und Analyse Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang, 1997.

A most detailed study of Western Han lacquer with descriptions and analyses. It includes a comprehensive bibliography on the subject (p. 535-579).

Scott, Rosemary, et al. Lacquer: An International History and Illustrated Survey. New York: Abrams, 1984.

The book discusses lacquer from all over the world, including China. Other topics include restoration and workshops. Provides comparison of Chinese lacquer with those from other cultures.

Teng, Rensheng. Lacquer Wares of the Chu Kingdom. Hong Kong: The Woods Pub. Co., 1992.

The work contains chiefly colored illustrations, but it also describes lacquer of the Chu, one of the Eastern Zhou states, based on recent archaeological finds at several thousand tombs. It classifies the wares, describes production of these wares, aesthetic features, and decorative motifs. It also contains a very useful comparison of the Chu lacquerwares with those of the Qin and Han dynasties.

Watt, James C.Y. and Barbara Brennan Ford. East Asian Lacquer: The Irving Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991.

Description of a major private collection of East Asian lacquerware, including Chinese.

_____. The Sumptuous Basket: Chinese Lacquer with Basketry Panels. New York: China House Gallery, 1985.

Catalog of an exhibition with focus on a variety of lacquerware throughout the centuries.

Yonemura, Ann. "The Art of Chinese Lacquer," Asian Art, vol. 1, no. 1 (fall/winter 1987-1988), p. 31-49.

Describes lacquerware in the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

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Calligraphy

Chinese calligraphy as an art form "became the quintessential idiom of personal expression and self-cultivation for the scholar or literati class of educated elite," and it occupies a prominent place among the visual arts in China. It is intimately related to other means of artistic expression in China, such as poetry and painting. In the U.S. the first large exhibition devoted solely to Chinese calligraphy was at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1971. Since then the study of Chinese calligraphy has gone a long way, with an increasing number of scholars studying the complex issues of Chinese calligraphy, materials and techniques, its historical development, and famous calligraphers. Some treatises have been translated from Chinese into western languages.

Chang, Ch=ung-ho and Hans H. Frankel, trans. & ed. Two Chinese Treatises on Calligraphy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

The two treatises, Shupu (687) and Xushupu (1208), deal with calligraphy in great detail. There were earlier translations, but the new ones combine faithfulness to the Chinese texts with clarity in English.

Chang, Leon L.Y. and Peter Miller. Four Thousand Years of Chinese Calligraphy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

The 437-page work gives a detailed history of Chinese calligraphy, interestingly tracing backwards from the present to Shang dynasty.

Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy Spanning Two Thousand Years: The Heinz Götze Collection, Heidelberg, edited with an introduction by Heinz Götze. Munich: Prestel, 1989.

Catalog of a private collection of Chinese and Japanese calligraphic works. Originally in German.

Chinese Calligraphy (A history of the Art of China). Yujiro Nakata, general editor, translated and adapted by Jeffrey Hunter. New York: Weatherhill, 1983.

First English edition of essays by Japanese scholars, with historical surveys from the origin to the Qing dynasty, with chronology of calligraphers and their works.

Fu, Shen. Traces of the Brush: Studies in Chinese Calligraphy. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1977.

Far more than an exhibition catalog, the work discusses reproduction and forgery in Chinese calligraphy, various styles, integration of painting and calligraphy.

_____, et al. From Concept to Context: Approaches to Asian and Islamic Calligraphy. Washington, DC: Freer Gallery of Art, 1986.

Also an exhibition catalog, the work introduced the finest examples of Chinese, Japanese and Islamic calligraphy in the collections of the Freer Gallery of Art.

Goldberg, Stephen J. AChina, 'IV, Calligraphy,@ Dictionary of Art, vol. 6, p. 735-772.

A very good overview of Chinese calligraphy and its historical development.

_____. Court Calligraphy of the Early Tang Dynasty. Ph. D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1981.

Limited to a specific period and to court calligraphy.

Harrist, Robert E. and Wen Fong. The Embodied Image: Chinese Calligraphy from the John B. Elliott Collection. New York, 1999.

In conjunction with a comprehensive exhibition of Chinese calligraphy in Princeton, the work contains scholarly essays with new perspectives on Chinese calligraphy, the visual art of the written word in China.

Kuo, Jason C. Word as Image: The Art of Chinese Seal Engraving. New York: China House Gallery, 1992.

Catalog of an exhibition at China House Gallery in New York, following Yale Art Gallery=s The world within a square inch: the art of Chinese seal carving. Seals are often considered a special form of the art of Chinese calligraphy, and are engraved with a script type known as >zhuanshu=. Seal imprints can be found on paintings and calligraphy and other objects. Seal-carving is also one of the literati=s cultivated pursuits.

Ledderose, Lothar. Mi Fu and the Classical Tradition of Chinese Calligraphy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Mi Fu (1052-1107), the Song dynasty calligrapher, collector, critic and connoisseur, had a profound influence in Chinese calligraphy, and his views were instrumental in restoring classical status to later calligraphers.

McNair, Amy. The Upright Brush: Yan Zhenqing=s Calligraphy and Song Literati Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998.

Originally the author=s Ph.D. thesis, the work analyzes the calligraphy of Yan Zhenqing (709-785) and his style which had profound influence on the Northern Song Neo-Confucian literati.

Mote, Frederick W. and Hung-lam Chu. Calligraphy and the East Asian Book. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1988.

Chinese calligraphy and Chinese books, the two important embodiments of Chinese civilization, and their evolving relationship through Chinese history are discussed together, thus useful for understanding of Chinese books. The work originally served as a catalog of an exhibition at the Princeton Art Museum, Princeton, New Jersey in 1989.

Tseng, Yuho. A History of Chinese Calligraphy. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1993.

The author gives a comprehensive history of Chinese calligraphy, with personal experience and understanding as a practicing artist.

Words and Images: Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy, and Painting, ed. by Freda Murck and Wen C. Fong. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991.

Consists of 23 papers delivered at the 1985 international symposium at the Museum, examining the interrelationship between writing and painting in China, highlighting the theme of words and images. It illustrates the transformation of Chinese art study from the most basic of facts thirty years earlier to increasingly refined research into the issues of artistic expression.

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Textiles

This particular art form has been overlooked in the past. The reasons could be the technical difficulties, including conservation difficulties, which resulted in lack of study on textiles. In recent years, however, a number of scholarly works with emphasis on the decorative aspects have been published since the publication of Schuyler Camman’s China’s Dragon Robes in 1952.

5000 Years of Chinese Costumes. Hong Kong: The Commercial Press, 1987.

An illustrated general survey of Chinese dress and dress accessories, edited by the Shanghai School of Traditional Operas’ Costumes Research Group.

Cammann, Schuyler. China’s Dragon Robes. New York: Ronald Press, 1952.

Still an excellent reference tool for studying a certain type of Chinese robe. The work not only discusses historical, technical and artistic aspects of Chinese dragon robes, but also touches upon weaving, dyes, symbolism underlying the robes, with a wealth of documentation, and provides insight in Chinese art and culture.

Cheng, Weiji, chief compiler. History of Textile Technology of Ancient China. New York: Science Press, 1992.

Focus on technical aspect of textiles and textile industry in China.

Chin hsiu lo i k’ao t’ien kung = Heavens’ Embroidered Cloths. Hong Kong: Urban Council, 1995.

The work in Chinese and English is not only an exhibition catalog, but a historical survey of one thousand years of Chinese textiles, with the English title quoted from William Butler Yeats’ poem. The exhibition was held at the Hong Kong Museum of Art, June 23-Sept. 7, 1995. The catalog includes essays by scholars, such as "Chinese Textiles and the Tibetan Connection," "Technical and Artistic Development of Chinese Patterned Silk," "Embroidery in Ancient Chinese Costume." It also includes a technical analysis and bibliographical references.

Garrett, Valery M. Chinese Clothing: An Illustrated Guide. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Comprehensive survey of Chinese clothing dating from the Ming and Qing to the twentieth century, with separate chapters on military uniforms, dress for special occasions (such as funeral clothing), children’s wear, and minority dress.

_____. A Collector’s Guide to Chinese Dress Accessories. Singapore: Times Editions, 1997.

The book places emphasis on collectibles, such as headwear, jewelry, collars, purses, fans, footwear, home furnishings and other accessories, their symbols, motifs, and meanings.

_____. Mandarin Squares: Mandarins and Their Insignia. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Deals with one particular kind of Chinese textiles design, mandarin square, or badge of rank, made of embroidered textiles.

_____. Traditional Chinese Clothing in Hong Kong and South China, 1840-1980 (Images of Asia). Hong Kong; New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Though the title indicates that the book deals with Hong Kong and South China, the book is useful for general information on Chinese clothing.

Hsia, Nai. Jade and Silk of Han China (The Franklin D. Murphy lectures; 3). Lawrence, KA: Spencer Museum of Art, The University of Kansas, 1983.

A published lecture by the renowned archaeologist, with the second part dealing with silk. An excellent overview of the history of silk and weaving in Han China and the exchange between China and the West.

Kao, Han-yü. Chinese Textile Designs [Chung-kuo li tai chih jan hsiu t’u lu. English]. London; New York: Penguin, 1992.

A brief general historical survey is followed by 275 colored illustrations of various designs, and a list of technical terms explained in English with illustrations.

Kuhn, Dieter. Literaturverzeichnis zur Textilkunde Chinas und zur allgemeinen Webtechnologie. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1977.

Indexes 1349 entries to articles from 127 serials in Chinese, Japanese and western languages, with subject index. Still useful.

Laumann, Maryta M. The Secret of Excellence in Ancient Chinese Silk. Taipei: Southern Materials Center, 1984.

Based on her teaching on textiles and research of archaeological discoveries, the author looks at religious and philosophical aspects of clothing, the role and impact of classes and status, and an illustrated summary of textile designs and technology.

Printing Dyeing Weaving and Embroidery (The great treasury of Chinese fine arts series. Arts and crafts. v. 6- ). Beijing: The Cultural Relics Pub. House, 1990-

Basically a collection of illustrations of extant early textile fragments dated back to Western Zhou and Han, with examples of dyeing, weaving and embroidery.

Watt, James C.Y. and Anne E. Wardwell. When Silk Was Gold: Central Asian and Chinese Textiles. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, in cooperation with The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1997.

By using objects dating as early as the 8th century from the collections of both the Metropolitan Musem and the Cleveland Museum, two most important collections in the West, the work discusses a topic of increasing importance and interest. An essay written by Morris Rossabi discusses silk trade in China and Central Asia. An extensive bibliography is provided.

Wilson, Verity. Chinese Dress. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1986.

An illustrated survey of various Chinese dress styles for officials, court, women and children, with a discussion on dating of dresses.

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Prepared by the Library of the Freer Gallery of Art
and the Arthur M.Sackler Gallery
in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
Smithsonian Institution

1999
revised 11 October 2000

 
 


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