Go to Table of
The Chinese art studies in the West began as early as the
mid-19th century, with the focus mainly on ceramics, other decorative
arts, and some paintings then known to the West. The intellectual and
methodological developments in art history and Sinology, but more profoundly
the growth of systematic archaeology in China which resulted in numerous
datable materials, provided tremendous impetus to the study of Chinese
art, with researchers and art historians making great strides, discovering,
confirming, re-constructing and reinterpreting art in China. Archaeological
sites and Buddhist caves were visited and documented, translations of
Chinese texts and catalogues of Chinese art were published, in which Japanese
scholars took the lead with the Western scholars not much behind.
In Europe and America, earlier scholars struggled at the
beginning to interpret early Chinese art with limited available data.
It was the philologers, such as Bernard Karlgren, who first studied inscriptions
on bronze vessels, jades and other early art. Max Loehr (1903-1988) was
the first one in the U.S.; he wrote The Bronze Styles of the Anyang
Period (1953), dealing with the stylistic evolution of decoration
on bronze vessels. Later studies by scholars, such as K.C. Chang, Robert
Bagley and Jessica Rawson, would focus more on the origin and meaning
of decoration, regional styles and the relationship between bronzes and
The first systematic studies of Chinese sculpture were made
by Japanese as well as European scholars, among them Victor Segalen (1878-1919)
and Osvald Siren (1879-1966). In the field of ceramics, long prized by
the Westerners, great contributions were made by collection catalogues,
such as those by the British Museum and by individuals, such as Augustus
Franks (1826-1897), Stephen Bushell (1844-1908) and Robert Hobson (1872-1941).
Among the early efforts in the field of Chinese painting was the historical
survey entitled an Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial
Art, published in 1905 by Herbert Allen Giles (1845-1935) and based
on Chinese sources. Later works were done by John Calvin Ferguson (1866-1945)
and Arthur Waley (1889-1966).
Rapid development in the study of Chinese art took place
after World War II, the most notable publication being Osvald Siren's
7-volume Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and Principles, published
in 1956-1958. In the U.S., the pioneers were James Cahill, Richard Edwards,
Wen Fong, Sherman Lee, Chu-tsing Li, Max Loehr, Alexander Soper, Michael
Sullivan, Harrie Vanderstappen and William Watson, some of them still
actively researching and publishing. The Anew@ generations from the '70s
and '80s began to reevaluate earlier conclusions and theories, rewrite
histories, and find new methodologies, including interdisciplinary comparisons
and technological examinations. The recent archaeological excavations
and subsequent research have resulted in a tremendous amount of literature
not only in China but also in Europe and the U.S. Instead of isolated
efforts by each scholar, East Asian art historians are actively exchanging
their research results and their views by creating discussion panels and
forums at the annual conferences of the College Art Association and the
Association for Asian Studies (AAS) and various symposia. For instance,
last year the Museum Committee for Asian Art and Culture was formed within
AAS, and one of the topics of discussions at the Japanese Art History
Forum at the 1999 Association for Asian Studies meeting in Boston was
publishing of Japanese art books.
For more in-depth reading on East Asian art studies in
the United States, Warren I. Cohen=s book, East Asian Art and American
Culture (New York : Columbia University Press, 1992), so far the most
informative history of East Asian art studies, is recommended. The first
brief chapter is on the period before 1900. It is followed by chapters
on the Agolden age@ of collecting from 1893 to1919, the beginning of scholarship,
further collecting in 1920s and 1930s, and the period of WWII and post-WWII;
the last chapter is on East Asian art historians with their various approaches
and theoretical arguments. It is also entertaining with anecdotes. Another
work, Europe studies China: Papers from an International Conference
on the History of European Sinology (London : Han Shan-tang Books,
1995), describes initial contributions made by European missionaries to
Sinological studies, the development of such studies during the 19th century,
and increasing progress in the 20th century, especially in recent decades,
due to China=s sweeping changes. Papers also included interesting stories
about the collecting of Chinese art in various European countries.
Table of Contents
and Daoist Art
The following titles focus on Buddhism and Daoism, the iconography
and their influences on Chinese art. Buddhist and Daoist art may be
represented in various forms, such as architecture, sculpture, bronzes.
Chen, Kenneth H. The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1973.
Useful for an overview of the Chinese transformation of Buddhism.
Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1987.
The work has 16 volumes, including the index. Entries on Oriental
religions are detailed. No illustrations.
Fisher, Robert E. Buddhist Art and Architecture. New York:
Thames and Hudson, 1993.
Provides a general introduction to Buddhist art in Asia. Chapters
deal with India and neighboring regions, China, Korea, Japan and
The Flowering of a Foreign Faith: New Studies in Chinese Buddhist
Art, edited by Janet Baker. New Delhi: Marg Publication, 1998.
Contains essays focusing on the characteristics of Chinese Buddhist
art, by Koichi Shinohara, Judy Chungwa Ho, Nancy Steinhardt, Wu
Hung, Janet Baker, Denise Leidy, Marylin Rhie, and Angela F. Howard.
Fong, Mary H. "The iconography of the popular Gods of Happiness,
Emolument, and Longevity (Fu Lu Shou)," Artibus Asiae
vol. 44, no. 2/3, p. 159-199.
The creation of the three gods in the late Ming and their growth
in popularity everywhere in China are discussed and illustrated.
The paper focuses on their origin and the artistic influences in
Howard, Angela Falco. The Imagery of the Cosmological Buddha.
Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1986.
Deals with Gautama Buddha in sculpture and Buddhist cosmology.
The Image of the Buddha, general editor David L. Snellgrove.
Tokyo: Kodansha/UNESCO, 1978.
Comprehensive coverage of image of the Buddha, including China.
In the Footsteps of the Buddha: an Iconic Journey from India to
China. Hong Kong: 1998.
Catalog of an exhibition of 120 or so objects from various collections
of the world, tracing the development of Buddhist art in South,
Southeast and Central Asia, from the 2nd century B.C. to the 13th
century, A.D. The Silk Road is also featured.
Little, Stephen. Realm of the Immortals: Daoism in the Arts of
China. Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1988.
Catalog of a modest exhibition at Cleveland Museum in 1988, it
presents a subject matter not extensively studied. The author gives
a brief historical introduction to Daoism and its influence on and
representation in Chinese art.
Munsterberg, Hugo. Chinese Buddhist Bronzes. New York: 1988.
Discussion of Buddhist bronzes as aesthetic pieces and religious
Oort, H.A. van. The Iconography of Chinese Buddhism in Traditional
China. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1986.
Covers the period of 3rd-6th centuries (Six dynasties and the Northern
dynasties) as the dawn of Buddhist art, and 10th-13th centuries
(Tang, Liao and Jin), the golden age of Buddhist art, with emphasis
on Buddhist iconography.
Rhie, Marylin M. Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia.
Leiden, The Netherlands : Brill, 1999-
A comprehensive study of Buddhist art, using various written evidence,
physical evidence, and archaeological finds, including those of
Russian archaeology. Volume 1 begins with the Han dynasty with the
beginning of Buddhism and Buddhist art in China and western and
eastern Central Asia.
Seckel, Dietrich. Buddhist Art of East Asia [Buddhistische
Kunst Ostasiens. English] Bellingham, WA: Western Washington University,
An overview of Buddhist art in East Asia, including China.
Sickman, Laurence and Alexander Soper. The Art and Architecture
of China. Harmondsworth. U. K.: Penguin, reprint ed. 1978.
Includes chapters on Buddhist art, such as "Beginning of Buddhist
Weidner, Marsha, ed. Latter Days of the Law: Images of Chinese
Buddhism, 850-1850. Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art, The University
of Kansas, in association with University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
Surveying Buddhism-inspired pictorial art from the late Tang, the
essays accompanying an exhibition at the Spencer Museum bring together
a wide range of pictures from woodblock prints to fine paintings.
Whitfield, Roderick and Anne Farrer. Caves of the Thousand Buddhas:
Chinese Art from the Silk Road. New York: Braziller, 1990.
Catalog of a 1990 exhibition of the Stein collection of Central
Asian antiquities at the British Museum.
Wright, Arthur F. Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press, 1959.
Discussion of Buddhism in China from an historical point of view,
from the early Han dynasty to modern times.
Wu, Hung. "Buddhist Elements in Early Chinese art (2nd and 3rd
centuries A.D.)," Artibus Asiae vol. 47, no. 3/4
(1986), p. 263-352.
Discussing different views among scholars as to how to identify
early Chinese Buddhist art, the work provides iconographic elements
both in textual evidence and images found from the early periods.
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Thanks to intense archaeological research in the last 50 years and
to the rich textual records, the study of the origin of Chinese civilization
has begun to evolve and yield tremendous results. Understanding of the
origin and growth of civilization in China, discerning the characteristic
patterns and comparing them with those of other ancient civilizations
will lead to understanding of ancient world history. However, Chinese
and Western archaeology are very different. Chinese archaeology lacks
evolutionary or developmental theory and ignores the role of the environment
in the formation of sites or selection of site locations. Also, the
length of time in China treated as historic is much longer. Excavation
techniques are similar to those used in the West, but there are differences.
Aigner, Jean S. Archaeological Remains in Pleistocene China.
Bonn : Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut, 1981.
Chang, Kwang-chih. Shang Civilization. New Haven: Yale University
Presents a comprehensive history of the Shang civilization (ca.18-12th
century, B.C.), emphasizing the need for such a book to be based
on all sources for Shang scholars. Part 1 centers on Anyang, the
capital of the dynasty; part 2 discusses other sites, such as Erligang,
Zhengzhou, and general issues concerning the Shang civilization.
_____. The Archaeology of Ancient China. 4th ed. Rev. and
enlarged. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. (The first 3 editions
published in 1963, 1968 and 1977)
As the author indicates, the work has been rewritten, with two
major changes. It does not cover the whole field and does not cite
all available references, and it ends with the rise of civilization.
Chinese Archaeological Abstracts, edited by Richard C. Rudolph
et al. Los Angeles: Institute of Archaeology, University of California,
A 4-volume abstract work of three important Chinese languages journals,
Kaogu, Kaoguxuebao and Wenwu, with illustrations and
Elisseeff, Danielle and Vadime. New Discoveries in China: Encountering
History Through Archaeology. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books, 1983.
The book describes changes undergone since 1949 and the beginning
of systematic excavations and archaeological discoveries. The sources
cited date as late as 1981.
Hsu, Cho-yun and Katheryn M. Linduff. Western Chou Civilization.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
Covers the period of 11th-771 B.C., providing background of the
Neolithic and Shang period, with an overview of the history of the
Zhou dynasty, as well as the arts and crafts.
Keightley, David N., ed. The Origins of Chinese Civilization.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
Contains papers by archaeologists, art historians, and other scholars
of various disciplines, discussing the topic of early cultural development
Li, Hsüeh-chin. Eastern Zhou and Qin Civilization, (Early
Chinese civilizations series), translated by K.C. Chang. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1985.
Provides an overview of the period between 770 and 207 B.C., describing
various states, and archaeological finds such as bronzes, gold and
silver, jades, lacquer, silk, coinage, seals and inscribed tablets.
Nelson, Sarah Milledge, ed. The Archaeology of Northeast China:
Beyond the Great Wall. London: Routledge, 1995.
Contains eight papers by Chinese archaeologists who, on the one
hand, emphasize, the importance of the connections between northeast
and central China focusing on common themes, similar art motifs,
and ceremonial commonalities, but, on the other hand, point out
the contrasts between the archaeological sites of two areas.
Rawson, Jessica. Ancient China: Art and Archaeology. New York:
Harper & Row, 1980.
Divided into five chapters by period, the Neolithic, Shang, Western
Zhou, Eastern Zhou and Han dynasties, the book is intended as a
companion to the British Museums collection of early Chinese
art and archaeological material, but serves as a general historical
survey of Chinese art to 220 A.D.
Studies of Shang Archaeology: Selected Papers from the International
Conference on Shang Civilization, edited by K.C. Chang. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1986.
Contains scholarly papers on the Shang civilization, on oracle
bones, bronzes, classification of Shang jades, etc.
Watson, William. Studies in Chinese Archaeology and Art. London:
The Pindar Press, 1997.
Contains essays written by the author over 50 years on Chinese
archaeology and art.
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Berliner, Nancy ... et al. Beyond the Screen: Chinese Furniture
of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1996.
Catalog of an exhibition focusing on the function and placement
of the furniture in a domestic setting. There has been increasing
interest in traditional Chinese furniture both in China and in the
West. The Ming furniture is especially treasured because of its
design and craftsmanship.
_____. Friends of the House: Furniture from Chinas Towns
and Villages. Salem, MA: Peabody Essex Museum, 1996.
Catalog of an exhibition at Peabody Museum, the work places pieces
of Chinese furniture in a social milieu with photographs of Chinas
villages, homes, and social customs.
Clunas, Craig. Chinese Furniture. London: Bamboo Pub. Ltd.,
A concise book containing color illustrations and a discussion
on the Chinese furniture industry and materials used in furniture-making.
Ecke, Gustav. Chinese Domestic Furniture in Photographs and Measured
Drawings. New York: Dover, 1986.
Reprint of the 1944 edition, with the publishers note on
the technical improvement in format and presentation, adding table
of contents, page numbering, and translation of the original Chinese
Ellsworth, Robert Hatfield. Chinese Furniture. New York: Random
A lavishly produced book with many color illustrations, it discusses
the background of Chinese furniture. Is a good pictorial reference.
_____. Chinese Furniture: One Hundred Examples from the Mimi and
Raymond Hung Collection. New York: Privately published, 1996.
Featuring one of the finest private collections of Chinese furniture,
the work also provides an historical overview on how Chinese furniture
has been collected and collecting in the late 1980s and the 1990s.
_____. Essence of Style: Chinese Furniture of the Late Ming and
Early Qing Dynasties. San Francisco: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco,
Catalog of an exhibition at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco,
focusing on the aesthetic and technical aspects of the Ming and
Journal of the Classical Chinese Furniture Society, ISSN 1054-9080.
Renaissance, CA: The Society, 1990-1994.
The quarterly journal was published between 1990 and 1994.
Tien, Chia-ching. Classical Chinese Furniture of the
Qing Dynasty [Ching tai chia chü. English]. London: Philip
Covers the Qing dynasty (1644-1912) furniture.
Wang, Shih-hsiang. Classic Chinese Furniture: Ming and Early Qing
Dynasties [Ming shih chia chü chen shang. English]. San Francisco:
China Books & Periodicals, 1986.
Written by the authority on Chinese furniture, the work was reissued
in Chicago by Art Media Resources, 1991. It presents the best information
on Chinese furniture of the Ming and early Qing periods.
_____. Connoisseurship in Chinese Furniture. Hong Kong: Joint
Pub. Co., 1989.
A two-volume work, it covers a wide range of topics including construction
of furniture and issues on dating and alterations of Chinese furniture.
_____ and Curtis Evarts. Masterpieces from the Museum of Classical
Chinese Furniture. Chicago; San Francisco: Chinese Art Foundation,
Catalog of the collection of the Museum of Classical Chinese Furniture.
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An, Chia-yao, "Early Chinese Glassware," Oriental Ceramic
Society Translations; no. 12. Hong Kong: Millennia, 1987. 46 p.
Translation of a scholarly article originally published in Kaogu
xuebao, 1984. The author uses archaeological finds to provide
an overview of early glass in China from the Han to Northern Song.
Finds include objects of Roman, Sasanian and Persian origins and
those of domestic production from various tombs in Shaanxi, Hebei,
Hubei and Gansu provinces. It also describes their shapes and usages.
Brown, Claudia and Donald Rabner. Clear as Crustal, Red as Flame:
Later Chinese Glass. New York: China Institute in America, 1990.
An exhibition catalog with discussions on Chinese glass from many
North American collections. Also provides background information
on glass workshops in Qing dynasty China.
A Chorus of Colors: Chinese Glass from Three American Collections,
edited by Michael Morrison, catalogue entries by Claudia Brown. San
Francisco: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995.
Catalog of an exhibition at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco
of three private collections, providing color illustrations of objects
dating from the Han to the Qing period.
Scientific Research in Early Chinese Glass: Proceedings of the
Archaeometry of Glass Sessions of the 1984 International Symposium
on Glass, Beijing, September 7, 1984, edited by Robert H. Brill and
John Martin. Corning: The Corning Museum of Glass, 1991.
Part 1 consists of scientific data; part 2 contains supplementary
papers on the Qing dynasty glassmaking, early glass finds from Zhou
dynasty tombs, and the glass collection of the Museum of Chinese
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Born, Gerald M. Chinese Jade: An Annotated Bibliography. Chicago:
Celadon Press, 1982.
Lists both Chinese sources (but only a small section and in romanization)
and English sources (forming the majority of the bibliography),
with general and title indexes. Sources used date from 1880 to 1981.
Bulletin of the Friends of Jade. ISSN 0261-7080. Wallington,
England: Friends of Jade, 1980-
Annual, 1980-1981, biennial since 1983. Latest issue no. 9 (1996)
Chinese Jade Animals. Hong Kong: The Urban Council of Hong
In English and Chinese, the exhibition catalog provides fine examples
of jade carvings of animal figures and zodiac signs.
Chou, Mark. Dictionary of Jade Nomenclature. Hong Kong: The
Dictionary for quick reference. Entries are both in English, romanized
and Chinese characters.
Goldsmith, Joan Hartman. Chinese Jade [Images of Asia]. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
The work is a concise introduction to the history of Chinese jade
from the Neolithic time to the 20th century, written for the collector.
Ip, Yee. Chung-kuo yü tiao = Chinese Jade Carving.
Hong Kong: Urban Council, 1983.
Catalog of an exhibition of jade objects from renowned Hong Kong
private collectors. The work consists of mainly of objects with
descriptions both in Chinese and English, and a brief introduction
to jade and its materials and the dating of jade.
Magic, Art and Order: Jade in Chinese Culture. Palm Spring:
Palm Springs Desert Museum, 1990.
Catalog of a 1990 exhibition, introduced by Robert Fisher, presenting
some representative pieces of various periods of the history of
Chinese jade from the Neolithic time to the Qing dynasty.
Rawson, Jessica. Chinese Jade from the Neolithic to the Qing.
London: British Museum, 1995.
Catalog of an exhibition and the collection of Sir Joseph Hotung,
covering the time from the Neolithic to the Qing dynasty. The work
discusses the archaeological, social and intellectual aspects of
Teng, Shu-ping. Ku kung po wu yüan tsang hsin shih
chi shih tai yü chi tu lu = Neolithic Jades in the
Collection of the National Palace Museum. Taipei: The Museum,
In Chinese and English. The collection catalog introduces 127 selected
pieces in different shapes and form for different functions, and
discusses jade culture in Neolithic period and its characteristics.
Watt, James C.Y. Chinese Jades from Han to Ching. New
York: Asia Society, 1980.
Catalog of an exhibition with an introductory essay covering the
history, dating and styles of jades. The objects, grouped by forms,
such as animals, birds, fishes, human figures, are given detailed
_____ and assisted by Michael Knight. Chinese Jades from the Collection
of the Seattle Art Museum. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum, 1989.
Seattle Art Museums jade collection is recognized for the
refined workmanship, variety of stone and comprehensive nature of
the objects ranging from the Neolithic period to the 20th century.
The catalog lists 109 of the finest pieces from the museum collection.
Yang, Chien-fang. Chung-kuo chu tu ku yü = Jade Carving
in Chinese Archaeology. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press,
So far only vol. 1 published. In Chinese and English. Each entry
is given a description, measurements, provenance, and bibliography.
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2000 Years of Chinese Lacquer. Hong Kong: Oriental Ceramic
Society of Hong Kong and Art Gallery, the Chinese University of Hong
Catalog of an exhibition jointly presented by the Society and the
University Art Gallery, in 1993, lavishly illustrated, with each
piece described in detail and an informative introduction to Chinese
lacquer, its origin, development and the workshops where lacquerware
was made. A special chapter deals with the lacquered zither, an
ancient Chinese musical instrument.
Clifford, Derek. Chinese Carved Lacquer. London: Bamboo, 1992.
The work introduces, with illustrations, lacquerware from the 9th
century to the modern day.
Garner, Sir Harry. Chinese Lacquer. London: Faber and Faber,
The work was written before the great archaeological discoveries.
Examples used are before 1974. But it is a thorough study on lacquer
which covers topics such as distribution of lacquer trees in East
Asia, the origins of lacquer, mother-of-pearl lacquer and painted
Hu-pei chu tu Chan kuo Chin Han chi chi
= Lacquerware from the Warring States to the Han Periods Excavated
in Hubei Province. Wu-han: Hu-pei sheng po wu kuan; Hong Kong:
Chinese University Press, 1994.
Catalog of an exhibition in Chinese and English of objects from
the so-called "high period" of the Warring States, Qin
and Western Han in lacquerware production (475 B.C.-220 A.D.). It
also surveys archaeological discoveries, production of lacquerware,
shapes and decorative motifs, and coloring.
Lee, Yu-kuan. Oriental Lacquer Art. New York: Weatherhill,
Still a good source, although some of the dating is now considered
Prüch, Margarete. Die Lacke der Westlichen Han-Zeit (206 v.-6.n.
Chr.): Bestand und Analyse Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang, 1997.
A most detailed study of Western Han lacquer with descriptions
and analyses. It includes a comprehensive bibliography on the subject
Scott, Rosemary, et al. Lacquer: An International History and
Illustrated Survey. New York: Abrams, 1984.
The book discusses lacquer from all over the world, including China.
Other topics include restoration and workshops. Provides comparison
of Chinese lacquer with those from other cultures.
Teng, Rensheng. Lacquer Wares of the Chu Kingdom. Hong Kong:
The Woods Pub. Co., 1992.
The work contains chiefly colored illustrations, but it also describes
lacquer of the Chu, one of the Eastern Zhou states, based on recent
archaeological finds at several thousand tombs. It classifies the
wares, describes production of these wares, aesthetic features,
and decorative motifs. It also contains a very useful comparison
of the Chu lacquerwares with those of the Qin and Han dynasties.
Watt, James C.Y. and Barbara Brennan Ford. East Asian Lacquer:
The Irving Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
Description of a major private collection of East Asian lacquerware,
_____. The Sumptuous Basket: Chinese Lacquer with Basketry Panels.
New York: China House Gallery, 1985.
Catalog of an exhibition with focus on a variety of lacquerware
throughout the centuries.
Yonemura, Ann. "The Art of Chinese Lacquer," Asian Art,
vol. 1, no. 1 (fall/winter 1987-1988), p. 31-49.
Describes lacquerware in the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian
Return to Table of Contents
Chinese calligraphy as an art form "became the quintessential
idiom of personal expression and self-cultivation for the scholar or
literati class of educated elite," and it occupies a prominent
place among the visual arts in China. It is intimately related to other
means of artistic expression in China, such as poetry and painting.
In the U.S. the first large exhibition devoted solely to Chinese calligraphy
was at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1971. Since then the study
of Chinese calligraphy has gone a long way, with an increasing number
of scholars studying the complex issues of Chinese calligraphy, materials
and techniques, its historical development, and famous calligraphers.
Some treatises have been translated from Chinese into western languages.
Chang, Ch=ung-ho and Hans H. Frankel, trans. & ed.
Two Chinese Treatises on Calligraphy. New Haven: Yale University
The two treatises, Shupu (687) and Xushupu
(1208), deal with calligraphy in great detail. There
were earlier translations, but the new ones combine faithfulness
to the Chinese texts with clarity in English.
Chang, Leon L.Y. and Peter Miller. Four Thousand
Years of Chinese Calligraphy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
The 437-page work gives a detailed history of Chinese
calligraphy, interestingly tracing backwards from the present to
Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy Spanning Two Thousand
Years: The Heinz Götze Collection, Heidelberg, edited with an
introduction by Heinz Götze. Munich: Prestel, 1989.
Catalog of a private collection of Chinese and Japanese
calligraphic works. Originally in German.
Chinese Calligraphy (A history of the Art of
China). Yujiro Nakata, general editor, translated and adapted by Jeffrey
Hunter. New York: Weatherhill, 1983.
First English edition of essays by Japanese scholars,
with historical surveys from the origin to the Qing dynasty, with
chronology of calligraphers and their works.
Fu, Shen. Traces of the Brush: Studies in Chinese
Calligraphy. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1977.
Far more than an exhibition catalog, the work discusses
reproduction and forgery in Chinese calligraphy, various styles,
integration of painting and calligraphy.
_____, et al. From Concept to Context: Approaches
to Asian and Islamic Calligraphy. Washington, DC: Freer Gallery
of Art, 1986.
Also an exhibition catalog, the work introduced the
finest examples of Chinese, Japanese and Islamic calligraphy in
the collections of the Freer Gallery of Art.
Goldberg, Stephen J. AChina, 'IV, Calligraphy,@ Dictionary
of Art, vol. 6, p. 735-772.
A very good overview of Chinese calligraphy and its
_____. Court Calligraphy of the Early Tang Dynasty.
Ph. D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1981.
Limited to a specific period and to court calligraphy.
Harrist, Robert E. and Wen Fong. The Embodied Image:
Chinese Calligraphy from the John B. Elliott Collection. New York,
In conjunction with a comprehensive exhibition of
Chinese calligraphy in Princeton, the work contains scholarly essays
with new perspectives on Chinese calligraphy, the visual art of
the written word in China.
Kuo, Jason C. Word as Image: The Art of Chinese Seal
Engraving. New York: China House Gallery, 1992.
Catalog of an exhibition at China House Gallery in
New York, following Yale Art Gallery=s The world within a square
inch: the art of Chinese seal carving. Seals are often considered
a special form of the art of Chinese calligraphy, and are engraved
with a script type known as >zhuanshu=. Seal imprints can be
found on paintings and calligraphy and other objects. Seal-carving
is also one of the literati=s cultivated pursuits.
Ledderose, Lothar. Mi Fu and the Classical Tradition
of Chinese Calligraphy. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
Mi Fu (1052-1107), the Song dynasty calligrapher,
collector, critic and connoisseur, had a profound influence in Chinese
calligraphy, and his views were instrumental in restoring classical
status to later calligraphers.
McNair, Amy. The Upright Brush: Yan Zhenqing=s Calligraphy
and Song Literati Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
Originally the author=s Ph.D. thesis, the work analyzes
the calligraphy of Yan Zhenqing (709-785) and his style which had
profound influence on the Northern Song Neo-Confucian literati.
Mote, Frederick W. and Hung-lam Chu. Calligraphy
and the East Asian Book. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1988.
Chinese calligraphy and Chinese books, the two important
embodiments of Chinese civilization, and their evolving relationship
through Chinese history are discussed together, thus useful for
understanding of Chinese books. The work originally served as a
catalog of an exhibition at the Princeton Art Museum, Princeton,
New Jersey in 1989.
Tseng, Yuho. A History of Chinese Calligraphy.
Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1993.
The author gives a comprehensive history of Chinese
calligraphy, with personal experience and understanding as a practicing
Words and Images: Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy, and
Painting, ed. by Freda Murck and Wen C. Fong. New York: Metropolitan
Museum of Art, 1991.
Consists of 23 papers delivered at the 1985 international
symposium at the Museum, examining the interrelationship between
writing and painting in China, highlighting the theme of words and
images. It illustrates the transformation of Chinese art study from
the most basic of facts thirty years earlier to increasingly refined
research into the issues of artistic expression.
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This particular art form has been overlooked in the past. The reasons
could be the technical difficulties, including conservation difficulties,
which resulted in lack of study on textiles. In recent years, however,
a number of scholarly works with emphasis on the decorative aspects
have been published since the publication of Schuyler Cammans
Chinas Dragon Robes in 1952.
5000 Years of Chinese Costumes. Hong Kong: The Commercial
An illustrated general survey of Chinese dress and dress accessories,
edited by the Shanghai School of Traditional Operas Costumes
Cammann, Schuyler. Chinas Dragon Robes. New York: Ronald
Still an excellent reference tool for studying a certain type of
Chinese robe. The work not only discusses historical, technical
and artistic aspects of Chinese dragon robes, but also touches upon
weaving, dyes, symbolism underlying the robes, with a wealth of
documentation, and provides insight in Chinese art and culture.
Cheng, Weiji, chief compiler. History of Textile Technology of
Ancient China. New York: Science Press, 1992.
Focus on technical aspect of textiles and textile industry in China.
Chin hsiu lo i kao tien kung = Heavens Embroidered
Cloths. Hong Kong: Urban Council, 1995.
The work in Chinese and English is not only an exhibition catalog,
but a historical survey of one thousand years of Chinese textiles,
with the English title quoted from William Butler Yeats poem.
The exhibition was held at the Hong Kong Museum of Art, June 23-Sept.
7, 1995. The catalog includes essays by scholars, such as "Chinese
Textiles and the Tibetan Connection," "Technical and Artistic
Development of Chinese Patterned Silk," "Embroidery in
Ancient Chinese Costume." It also includes a technical analysis
and bibliographical references.
Garrett, Valery M. Chinese Clothing: An Illustrated Guide.
Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Comprehensive survey of Chinese clothing dating from the Ming and
Qing to the twentieth century, with separate chapters on military
uniforms, dress for special occasions (such as funeral clothing),
childrens wear, and minority dress.
_____. A Collectors Guide to Chinese Dress Accessories.
Singapore: Times Editions, 1997.
The book places emphasis on collectibles, such as headwear, jewelry,
collars, purses, fans, footwear, home furnishings and other accessories,
their symbols, motifs, and meanings.
_____. Mandarin Squares: Mandarins and Their Insignia. Hong
Kong: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Deals with one particular kind of Chinese textiles design, mandarin
square, or badge of rank, made of embroidered textiles.
_____. Traditional Chinese Clothing in Hong Kong and South China,
1840-1980 (Images of Asia). Hong Kong; New York: Oxford University
Though the title indicates that the book deals with Hong Kong and
South China, the book is useful for general information on Chinese
Hsia, Nai. Jade and Silk of Han China (The Franklin D. Murphy
lectures; 3). Lawrence, KA: Spencer Museum of Art, The University
of Kansas, 1983.
A published lecture by the renowned archaeologist, with the second
part dealing with silk. An excellent overview of the history of
silk and weaving in Han China and the exchange between China and
Kao, Han-yü. Chinese Textile Designs [Chung-kuo li tai
chih jan hsiu tu lu. English]. London; New York: Penguin,
A brief general historical survey is followed by 275 colored illustrations
of various designs, and a list of technical terms explained in English
Kuhn, Dieter. Literaturverzeichnis zur Textilkunde Chinas und
zur allgemeinen Webtechnologie. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1977.
Indexes 1349 entries to articles from 127 serials in Chinese, Japanese
and western languages, with subject index. Still useful.
Laumann, Maryta M. The Secret of Excellence in Ancient Chinese
Silk. Taipei: Southern Materials Center, 1984.
Based on her teaching on textiles and research of archaeological
discoveries, the author looks at religious and philosophical aspects
of clothing, the role and impact of classes and status, and an illustrated
summary of textile designs and technology.
Printing Dyeing Weaving and Embroidery (The great treasury
of Chinese fine arts series. Arts and crafts. v. 6- ). Beijing: The
Cultural Relics Pub. House, 1990-
Basically a collection of illustrations of extant early textile
fragments dated back to Western Zhou and Han, with examples of dyeing,
weaving and embroidery.
Watt, James C.Y. and Anne E. Wardwell. When Silk Was Gold: Central
Asian and Chinese Textiles. New York: The Metropolitan Museum
of Art, in cooperation with The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1997.
By using objects dating as early as the 8th century from the collections
of both the Metropolitan Musem and the Cleveland Museum, two most
important collections in the West, the work discusses a topic of
increasing importance and interest. An essay written by Morris Rossabi
discusses silk trade in China and Central Asia. An extensive bibliography
Wilson, Verity. Chinese Dress. London: Victoria and Albert
An illustrated survey of various Chinese dress styles for officials,
court, women and children, with a discussion on dating of dresses.
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Prepared by the Library of the Freer
Gallery of Art
and the Arthur M.Sackler Gallery
in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
revised 11 October 2000