The Abacus and the Numeral Frame Resources


Barnard, F.A. P., The Casting-Counter and the Counting-Board, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1916.

Hudson, J.P., “Brass Casting Counters (or Jettons) Found at Jamestown,” Quarterly Journal of the Archeological Society of Virginia, 34 (1979), pp. 112-113.

Kidwell, P.A., A. Ackerberg-Hastings, and D. L. Roberts, Tools of American Mathematics Teaching, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 87-104.

Mitchiner, M., Jetons, Medalets & Tokens, The Medieval Period and Nuremberg, 1,1988, London: Seaby.

Pullan, J. M., The History of the Abacus, New York: Praeger, 1970.

Needham, J. with W. Ling, Science and Civilization in China, 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959.

Spasskii, I. G., “Proiskhozhdenie I istoriia russkikh schetov,” Istoriko-mathematicheskie issledovaniia, 5, 1965, pp. 269-420.

These objects, abaci in other Smithsonian collections, and related documents may be found by searching for abacus.