Solitary tunicates on underwater panel

Viviana Bravo, Smithsonian Institution
June 9, 2022
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Marine creatures attached to a square plate experiment
Viviana Bravo, Smithsonian Institution

Solitary tunicates dominate this underwater settlement panel in Panama City. The panel was protected from predators via caging for the duration of the 12-week experiment. This allowed the tunicates—a popular prey item—to flourish when they otherwise would have been eaten. 


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