Isthmus of Panama: Miopliocene

Aaron O'Dea
August 17, 2016
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photos of mollusk and coral fossils
Aaron O'Dea

Caribbean transformation. Before the Isthmus of Panama formed, nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific entered the Caribbean whose marine ecosystems were dominated by molluscs (left). When the Isthmus formed, around three million years ago, Pacific waters were blocked, nutrients declined and corals (right) became established across the Caribbean.

Photo: Aaron O'Dea