Left panel: Ted Schultz (left) and Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo (right) excavate a primitive, lower fungus-farming ant nest in the seasonally dry Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) near Brasilia in 2009. Photo credit: Cauê Lopes. Center and right panel: The underground garden chamber of a primitive, lower fungus-farming ant colony revealed by excavation. Photo credits: Ted Schultz, Smithsonian. Lower, primitive fungus-farming ant colonies and agricultural behaviors are comparably smaller-scale and simpler than the colonies of higher fungus-farming ants.
Photos by Cauê Lopes and Ted Schultz, Smithsonian.