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Selected References on Sharks

The National Museum of Natural History receives numerous requests for information on sharks and shark attack. This pamphlet provides a list of selected references divided into five categories: general references, shark attack, shark fishing, selected species, and sensory systems. The citations include both technical and popular publications. An asterisk, *, denotes a book or article that is primarily technical. Most of the general references are, however, a combination of technical details, authoritative information, and a lively text so they could be categorized as both technical and popular.

The publications cited in the following pages are not available from the Smithsonian Institution unless otherwise noted. They can be obtained from most large public libraries or can be requested through an interlibrary loan. Many are currently in print and can be ordered from local bookstores. January, 2003



Shark Cave Photo
Shark Cave. This coral cave forms a dormitory for White-tipped Reef Sharks. Squirrel fish hover above them near the cave roof. Photographed off one of the Pearl Islands on Panama's Pacific Coast. Photo by Carl C. Hansen.


Allen, T.B.

1999 The Shark Almanac. Lyons Press, New York. 274 pp. (Facts on the biology, anatomy, and behavior of sharks with many illustrations and photographs.)

American Fisheries Society

1991 A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada. 6th Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication No. 20, Bethesda, Maryland. 183 pp.

Bigelow, H.B., and W.C. Schroeder

1948 *Sharks. In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Memoir of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale University, New Haven. No. 1, Part 1, pp. 59-576. (A thorough discussion of the biology, habits, and classification of Western Atlantic sharks as of 1948, with inclusions of information on sharks of other parts of the world.)

1953 *Sawfishes, Guitarfishes, Skates and Rays. In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, Memoir of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale University, New Haven. No. 1, Part 2, pp. 1-514. Chimaeroids, Ibid, pp. 515-562.

Branstetter, S., ed.

1993 *Conservation Biology of Elasmobranchs. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 115, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service. 99 pp. (Contains 9 articles covering topics on elasmobranch biology, fisheries, and public education.)

Bright, M.

2002 Sharks. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC in Association with the Natural History Museum, London. 112 pp. (Biology and behavior of sharks with latest findings from researchers around the world, dispels misconceptions.)

Brownlee, S.

1985 Special report: on the track of the real shark. Discover, Vol. 6, No. 7, July 1985, pp. 26-38.

Budker, P.

1971 The Life of Sharks. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. 222 pp. (A history and biology of sharks with sections on classification, anatomy, feeding, man-eaters, uses to man, and shark myths and legends.)

Carroll, R.L.

1988 *Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. (Fossil sharks)

Cartmell, B.C.

1978 Let's Go Fossil Shark Tooth Hunting. Natural Science Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 76 pp.

Carwardine, M. and K. Watterson

2002 The Shark-Watchers Handbook. Princeton University Press, New Jersey (Guide to diving, snorkeling, where to see sharks, photography) 287 pp.

Casey, J.G.

1964 Anglers' Guide to Sharks of the Northeastern United States, Maine to Chesapeake Bay. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Circular 179, Washington, DC. 32 pp. (An illustrated key)

Castro, J.I.

1983 The Sharks of North American Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 180 pp. (108 species accounts of sharks from North American waters. The first part of the book discusses shark evolution, anatomy, biology, distribution, and fishery methods.)

Clark, E.

1969 The Lady and the Sharks. Harper & Row. New York. 269 pp. (Experiences of a marine biologist.)

1981 Sharks, magnificent and misunderstood. National Geographic, Vol. 160, No. 2, August 1981, pp. 13-83. (Highlights of shark biology and behavior with many beautiful photographs.)

Cocke, J.

2002 Fossil Shark Teeth of the World: a collector’s guide. Lamna, Torrence, California. 150 pp.

Colbert, E.H., and M. Morales

1991 Evolution of the Vertebrates. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publication, New York. 470 pp. (Chapter on the evolution of sharks.)

Compagno, L.J.V.

1984 *Sharks of the World. FAO Species Catalogue. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Vol. 4, Part l and Part 2. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 655 pp. (A compendium of shark information from details of classification to distribution, habitat, biology, and fisheries with keys, glossary, and literature references. The most complete work to date on all living sharks. May be obtained in large university libraries.)

1988 *Sharks of the Order Carcharhiniformes. Princeton University Press, New Jersey

2001 *Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes No. 1, Vol. 2. (Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks [Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectologiformes]) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 269 pp. (One of three volumes intended as an updating of Compagno 1984; Vols 1 and 3 as of 1/8/03, not published.)

Compagno, L.J.V., D.A. Ebert, and M.J. Smale

1989 Guide to the Sharks and Rays of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 160 pp. (A field guide that includes substantial sections on general biology, commercial fisheries, shark attack, and conservation.)

Cox, G. and M. Francis

1997 Sharks and Rays of New Zealand. Canterbury University Press, New Zealand.

Daniel, J.F.

1934 *The Elasmobranch Fishes. University of California Press, Berkeley. 332 pp. (Technical work on anatomy of sharks. Many later editions published.)

Dingerkus, G.

1985 The Shark Watchers' Guide. Wanderer Books, Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York. 144 pp. (A handy fact filled guide, easy to read, about several familiar and unfamiliar species.)

Ellis, R.

1989 The Book of Sharks. Soft cover reprint of 1975 edition. Grosset & Dunlap, New York. 256 pp. (Many black and white photographs and color paintings illustrate this popular reference that includes shark evolution, biology, accounts of selected species, myths, senses, attacks, and repellents.)

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald, and H. Hammann

1983 A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 336 pp. (Identification of marine fishes of the Pacific coast; includes a section on cartilaginous fishes: sharks, rays and chimaeras.)

Ferguson, A., and G. Cailliet

1990 Sharks and Rays of the Pacific Coast. Monterey Bay Aquarium, California. 64 pp. (Easy to read introduction to sharks and rays, their biology and habitats with a section on the research performed at the Monterey Aquarium.)

Gilbert, P.W., R.F. Mathewson, and D.P. Rall, eds.

1967 *Sharks, Skates and Rays. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 624 pp. (Thirty-nine papers by leading elasmobranch biologists on subjects ranging from evolution, shark tagging, distribution, and osmoregulation to the teeth of sharks, chemistry and physiology of the nervous system and immunization.)

1984 Biology and behavior of sharks. Endeavour, New Series, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 179-187. (Many facts packed into an easy to read format.)

Gruber, S. H., ed.

1990 Discovering Sharks. A volume honoring the work of Stewart Springer. American Littoral Society, Highlands, New Jersey. 121 pp. (Contains 24 papers covering all aspects of shark biology: taxonomy, paleobiology, anatomical features, osmoregulation, sensory biology, ageing and growth, feeding, deep sea sharks, migration, reproduction, behavior, repellants and impending management issues.)

Hamlett, W.C., and B. Tota, eds.

1989 *Evolutionary and Contemporary Biology of Elasmobranchs. The Journal of Experimental Zoology, Supplement 2, 1989, Eighth International Symposium on Morphological Sciences, Rome, Italy, July 10-15, 1988. 198 pp.

Hamlett, W.C. , ed.

1999 Sharks, Skates, and Rays. The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London. 515 pp. (Comprehensive overview; a reference resource with up-dated materials on anatomy, physiology and biochemistry; includes many technical citations. For the graduate student and professional.)

Hennemann, R.M.

2001 Sharks & Rays: Elasmobranch Guide of the World. IKAN-Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt, Germany. 304 pp.

Hoar, W.S., and D.J. Randall, eds.

1969-1978 *Fish Physiology. Vol. I, 1969, Excretion, Ionic Regulation, and Metabolism, 465 pp.; Vol. II, 1969, The Endocrine System, 446 pp.; Vol. III, 1969, Reproduction and Growth, Bioluminiscense, Pigments and Poisons, 485 pp.; Vol. IV, 1970, The Nervous System, Circulation and Respiration, 532 pp.; Vol. V, 1971, Sensory Systems and Electric Organs, 600 pp.; Vol. VI, 1971, Environmental Relations and Behavior, 559 pp.; Vol. VII, 1978, Locomotion, 576 pp. Academic Press, New York.

Hoar, W.S., D.J. Randall, and J.R. Brell, eds.

1978 *Fish Physiology. Vol. VIII, Bioenergetics and Growth. Academic Press, New York. 786 pp.

Hoar, W.S., D.J. Randall, and E.M. Donaldson, eds.

1983 *Fish Physiology. Vol. IX, Reproduction, Part A, Endocrine Tissues and Hormones, 483 pp.; Vol. IX, Reproduction, Part B, Behavior and Fertility Control, 476 pp. Academic Press, New York.

Johnson, R.H.

1978 Sharks of Tropical and Temperate Seas. Les Editions du Pacifique, Papeete, Tahiti. 170 pp. (Species accounts; handy fact filled guide.)

Kent, B.W.

1994 Fossil Sharks of the Chesapeake Bay Region. Egan Rees & Boyer, Inc., Columbia, Maryland. 146 pp. (Details ways to identify fossil sharks; also includes fossil history of sharks and biology of living sharks; many line drawings of teeth and shark dentitions.)

Last, P.R., and J.D. Stevens

1993 Sharks and Rays of Australia. CSIRO Information Services, PO Box 89, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002. 513 pp., 84 plates. (Identifies and illustrates 296 species of sharks and rays; includes 300 color maps with distribution information; describes feeding habits, biology and reproduction.)

Lineaweaver, T.H., III, and R.H. Backus

1970 The Natural History of Sharks. J.B. Lippincott Co., New York. 256 pp. (Lively discussion of many aspects of shark biology and behavior. 1984 paperback edition, Schocken Books, New York)

Luer, C.A., and P.W. Gilbert

1991 Elasmobranch fish: oviparous, viviparous, and ovoviviparous. Oceanus, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 47-53. (Easy to read discussion of the reproductive adaptations in sharks and rays.)

Macdonald, J.R.

1983 The Fossil Collector's Handbook: a Paleontology Field Guide. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 193 pp.

MacQuitty, M.

1992 Shark. (Eyewitness Books). Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 64 pp. (For upper elementary and junior high grades; describes the physical characteristics, behavior, and life cycle of various shark species. Has many color photographs.)

Michael, S.W.

1993 Reef Sharks and Rays of the World: A Guide to their Identification, Behavior, and Ecology. Sea Challengers, Monterey, California. 107 pp. (Color field guide; introduction on biology and ecology followed by glossary of terms and pictorial key to families.)

Moss, S.A.

1984 Sharks: an Introduction for the Amateur Naturalist. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 246 pp. (Excellent treatment of shark biology; easy to read, with information on all aspects of sharks, particularly their physiology.)

Northcutt, R.G., ed.

1977 *Recent advances in the biology of sharks. American Zoologist, Vol. 17, No. 2, Spring 1977, pp. 287-515. (Technical papers on a variety of subjects dealing with the anatomy, biology, and behavior of sharks.)

Perrine, D.

1999 Sharks & Rays of the World. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, Minnesota. 132 pp. (Many engaging photographs)

Pope, J., and B.H. Smart

2002 1001 Facts about Sharks. Dorling Kindersley Pub. Inc., 192 pp. (8 years old & up)

Pratt, H.L. Jr., S.H. Gruber, and T. Taniuchi, eds.

1990 *Elasmobranchs as Living Resources: Advances in the Biology, Ecology, Systematics, and the Status of the Fisheries. Proceedings of the Second United States-Japan Workshop East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, 9-14 December 1987. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 90. U.S. Department of Commerce. Seattle, Washington. 518 pp.

Prince, E.D., and L.M. Pulos, eds.

1983 *Proceedings of the International Workshop on Age Determination of Oceanic Pelagic Fishes: Tunas, Billfishes, and Sharks. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Report NMFS 8. 211 pp. (Technical)

Randall, J.E.

1986 Sharks of Arabia. Immel Publishing, London. 148 pp.(Information on shark anatomy, evolutionary history and on human/ shark interactions as well as a discussion of the 44 sharks inhabiting the waters that surround the Arabian Peninsula. Color photographs of living sharks.)

Reader's Digest Editors

1986 Sharks, Silent Hunters of the Deep. Reader's Digest Services Pty Ltd, Sydney, London, New York, Montreal, Capetown. 208 pp. (Contributions from experts in the field on shark biology, behavior, history, myths, worldwide records of attacks and ways to repell sharks. Beautiful color photographs.)

Romer, A.S.

1966 Paleontology. 3rd edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 468 pp. (Fossil sharks)

Schwartz, F.J.

1984 Sharks, Sawfish, Skates, and Rays of the Carolinas. Special Publication, Institute of Marine Sciences, Moorehead City, North Carolina. 101 pp. (Guide with field key to Carolinian sharks; includes information on fossil sharks and teeth, sport and commercial fisheries, and shark attacks in Carolina waters.)

1989 Sharks of the Carolinas. Institute of Marine Sciences, Moorehead City, North Carolina. 53 pp.

Shirai, S.

1992 *Squalean Phylogeny: a New Framework of "Squaloid" Sharks and Related Taxa. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo. 151 pp.

Shuttleworth, R.J., ed.

1988 *Physiology of Elasmobranch Fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York, London. 324 pp. (Technical: includes chapters on the respiratory system, nervous system, sensory physiology, muscles and locomotion, salt water balance, and reproductive physiology.)

Springer, V.G., and J.P. Gold

1989 Sharks in Question. The Smithsonian Answer Book. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 176 pp. (Natural history of selected species and answers to questions commonly asked about sharks.)

Stead, D.G.

1964 Sharks and Rays of Australian Seas. Angus and Robertson, London. 211 pp.

Steel, R.

1985 Sharks of the World. Facts on File Publications, New York. 192 pp. (An account of many aspects of shark biology, behavior, and shark attacks.)

Stevens, J.D., ed.

1999 Sharks. 2nd edition, Check Mark Books, New York. 240 pp. (Survey of sharks and shark behavior, beautifully illustrated for the layman. Articles written by experts in the field cover evolution, ecology, distribution, incidence of shark attacks throughout the world, myths, practical role of sharks, and ways to repel sharks.

Stevens, J.E.

1994 The delicate constitution of sharks. Bioscience, Vol. 44, No. 10, November 1994, pp. 661-664. (Describes problems and solutions to keeping sharks in captivity.)

Stoskopf, M.K.

1993 *Fish Medicine. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London. 882 pp. ( Section VIII, pp. 737-816 on sharks, skates and rays. Includes a brief review of taxonomy and natural history of sharks, anatomy, physiology, reproduction, and comprehensive discussion of shark diseases and pathology.)

Taylor, L.

1993 Sharks of Hawai'i: Their Biology and Cultural Significance. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 126 pp. (Includes species accounts of Hawaiian sharks and a comprehensive register of shark attacks in Hawai'i by George H. Balazs.)

Taylor, L. ed.

2001 Sharks. The Little Guides. Federal Sheet Press, Springfield, Massachusetts. 320 pp. (Handy small size introduction to sharks.)

Thompson, I.

1982 The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Fossils. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 846 pp.

Thorson, T.B., ed.

1976 *Investigations of the Ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes. School of Life Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 663 pp. (Section on freshwater sharks.)

Welton, B.J., and R.F. Farish

1993 The Collector's Guide to Fossil Sharks and Rays from the Cretaceous of Texas. Before Time, Lewisville, Texas. 204 pp. (Identification guide plus information on fossil preparation and display, tooth collecting and collection sites with extensive list of references.)

Wilson, R., and J.Q. Wilson

1985 Watching Fishes: Life and Behavior on Coral Reefs. Harper & Row Pub., New York. 275 pp. (Includes a section on sharks.)

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

1981 Sharks. Oceanus, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter,1981/82. 80 pp. (Semi-technical level; devoted to shark research. Sections on classification, vision, feeding, reproduction, sensory experiments, grouping behavior, and shark repellents. No longer in print but can be obtained in large libraries.)

Wourms, J., and L. Demski, eds.

1993 *Reproduction and Development of Sharks, Skates, Rays and Ratfishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 1993, Vol. 38, No. 1-3, 270 pp. (Results from the 1990 Charleston, SC, AES Sumposium: 22 papers arranged in four sections: reproductive ecology and life history; structure and function of the reproductive system; neural and endocrine control of reproduction; embryonic development and viviparity.)

Zahuranec, B.J., ed.

1983 *Shark Repellents from the Sea: New Perspectives. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Selected Symposium 83. 210 pp.

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Shark Attack

Baldridge, H. D.

1974 Shark Attack. Berkeley Pub. Corp., New York. 263 pp. (An analysis of the information from the International Shark Attack File. Case histories, most dating between 1958 and 1967, are cited. Possible causative factors in shark attacks are discussed. No longer in print, but may be obtained from local libraries.)

1988 Shark aggression against man: beginnings of an understanding. California Fish and Game, Vol 74, No.4, pp. 208-217. (A summing up of what we know about shark attacks and where we go from here.)

1990 Shark repellent: not yet, maybe never. Military Medicine, Vol. 155, No. 8, August 1990, pp. 358-361. (History of the interest in use of shark repellents, practicability reexamined and guidelines suggested for future development.)

Coppleson, V.M.

1962 Shark Attack. 2nd edition. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. 269 pp. (Discussion of shark attacks on a world wide basis.)

Ellis, R., and J. McCosker

1986 Speaking of sharks. Oceans, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 25-29, 58-60. (A dialogue on white shark attack strategies.)

Gilbert, P.W., ed.

1963 *Sharks and Survival. D.C. Heath and Co., Boston. 578 pp. (Discussion of the identification, distribution, behavior, nervous system and sense organs of sharks. Focuses on shark attacks, dangerous species, patterns, repellents and tests of the effectiveness of shark repellents.)

Gruber S.H.

1988 Why do sharks attack humans? Naval Research Reviews, Vol. XL, 1, pp. 2-12. (Motivations of sharks, analyzing shark attacks, and the research programs of the Office of Naval Reseach are discussed.)

Hodgson, L.

1984 Shark netting: a costly security blanket. Australian Natural History, Vol. 21, No. 7, Summer 1984-85, pp. 283-284.

Klimley, A.P.

1994 The predatory behavior of the white shark. American Scientist, Vol. 82, March-April 1994, pp. 122-133.

Klimley, A.P., and D.G. Ainley, eds.

1996 See Selected Species

Le Boeuf, B.J., J.E. McCosker, and J. Hewitt

1987 *Crater wounds on northern elephant seals: the cookiecutter shark strikes again. Fishery Bulletin, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 387-392.

Martin, M.

1985 The shark: more threatened than threatening! Sea Frontiers, Vol. 31, No. 5, September-October 1985, pp. 296-303. (Reductions in shark populations and age and growth studies.)

McCormick, H.W., T. Allen, and Capt. Wm. Young

1963 Shadows in the Sea: Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 415 pp. (A popular account about sharks and Capt. Young's observations of shark behavior.)

Miller, D.I., and R.S. Collier

1980 *Shark attacks in California and Oregon 1926-1979. California Fish and Game, Vol. 67, pp. 76-104.

Nelson, D.R., R.R. Johnson, J.N. McKibben, and G.G. Pittenger

1986 *Agonistic attacks on divers and submersibles by gray reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos: anti- predatory or competitive? Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 68-88.

Perrine, D.

1989 Reef shark attack! New clues raise new questions about why sharks bite people. Sea Frontiers, Vol.35, No. 1, January -February 1989, pp. 31-41

Reader's Digest Editors

1986 See General Section

Sibley, G., J.S. Seigel, and C.C. Swift, eds.

1985 See Selected Species

Stevens, J.D., ed.

1987 See General Section

Taylor, L.

1993 See General Section

Zahuranec, B.J., ed.

1983 See General Section

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Shark Fishing

Dunn, B. and P. Goadby

2000 Saltwater Game Fishes of the World. Australian Fishing Network. 292 pp. (History of shark fishing, in one section of this book replete with excellent reproductions of old photographs.)

Gordievskaya, V.S.

1973 *Shark Flesh in the Food Industry. Pacific Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (translated from Russian), Published for the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. 26 pp.

Maxwell, G.

1952 Harpoon Venture. The Viking Press, New York. 304 pp. A lively account of the author's experiences establishing and operating a basking shark fishery in the Outer Hebrides; includes much about the behavior and biology of the basking shark.)

Otwell, W.S. et al.

1985 Manual on Shark Fishing. Sea Grant Report No. 73. Florida Sea Grant College, Gainesville, Florida. 44 pp.

Ripley, W.E.

1946 The soupfin shark and the fishery. California Division of Fish and Game, Fishery Bulletin, Vol. 64, pp. 7-37.

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Selected Species

Benchley, P. and D. Doubilet

2000 Inside the Great White. National Geographic, Vol. 197, No. 4, April 2000, pp. 4-29. (Observations of the Great White capturing prey off the shore of Gansbaai, South Africa.)

Clark, E.

1975 Into the lairs of sleeping sharks. National Geographic, Vol. 47, No. 4, April 1975, pp. 570-584. (Observations of Carcharhinus springeri "sleeping" in caves off Yucatan.)

1992 Whale sharks. National Geographic, Vol. 182, No. 6, Dec. 1992, pp. 123-139.

Curtsinger, B.

1995 Close encounters with the gray reef shark. National Geographic, Vol. 187, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 44-67.

1999 Tiger in the kill. National Geographic, vol. 196, No. 5, November 1999, pp. 28-35 (Tiger sharks prey on Laysan albatrosses.)

Davis, C.

1983 The awesome basking shark. Sea Frontiers, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 78-85.

Ellis, R., and J. McCosker

1991 Great White Shark. Harper-Collins Books, NY, in collaboration with Stanford University Press, CA. 270 pp. (A general survey of sharks including the great white's extinct relative, Carcharodon megalodon, and the relationship between sharks and man. Essays on problems of keeping white sharks in captivity, how to save the white shark, and new insights on shark attack behavior.)

Gilbert, P., and C. Gilbert

1986 The baffling basking shark. Animal Kingdom, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 35-37.

Gruber, S.H.

1988 Sharks of the shallows. Natural History, Vol. 97, No. 3, March 1988, pp. 50-59. (Life history of lemon sharks in the Bimini lagoons, fifty miles east of Miami, Florida.)

Hutchins, B.

1992 Megamouth: gentle giant of the deep. Australian Natural History, Vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 910-917.

Ketchen, K.S.

1986 *The Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the Northeast Pacific and a History of its Utilization. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 88. 78 pp.

Klimley, A.P.

1994 See Shark Attack. (White shark predatory behavior.)

1995 Hammerhead city. Natural History, Vol. 104, No. 10, October 1995, pp. 32-39 pp. (Schooling behavior of scalloped hammerheads.)

Klimley, A.P., and D.G. Ainley, eds.

1996 Great White Sharks. The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 517 pp. (Technical treatment by experts in the field on white shark evolution, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology and distribution, population biology and interactions with humans.)

Lavenberg, R.J.

1991 Megamania. The continuing saga of megamouth sharks. Terra, Vol. 30, No. 1, Fall 1991, pp. 30-39. (Review of all megamouth captures, particularly megamouth VI and its release.)

Lavenberg, R.J., and J.A. Seigel

1985 The Pacific's megamystery-Megamouth. Terra, Vol. 23, No. 4, March/April 1985, pp. 29-31.

Long, J.

1995 Big tooth. Australian Natural History, Summer 1994-95, pp.43-48. (Evolution of the white shark and its extinct relatives.)

Maxwell, G.

1952 See Shark Fishing. (Basking shark biology and behavior.)

Michael, S.

1986 The inflatable sharks. Survival of the fattest? Sea Frontiers, Vol. 32, No. 1, January-February 1986, pp. 27-33. (Behavior of the swell shark.)

Morrissey, J.F.

1987 Shark research at sea. Sea Frontiers/Sea Secrets, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 244-255. (Describes research performed on sharks, particularly the lemon sharks, found in Bimini waters.)

Morrissey, J.F., and H. Butcher V

1988 The natural history of tiger sharks. Sea Frontiers, Vol. 34, No. 5, September-October 1988, pp. 264-271.

Nammack, M.F., J.A. Musick, and J.A. Colvocoresses

1985 *Life history of the spiny dogfish off the northeastern United States. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Vol. 114, pp. 367-376.

Nelson, D.R. and R.H. Johnson

1980 *Behavior of the reef sharks of Rangiroa, French Polynesia. National Geographic Society Research Reports, Vol. 12, pp. 479-499.

Olsen, A.M.

1984 *Synopsis of Biological Data on the School shark, Galeorhinus australis (Macleay 1881). FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 139. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 42 pp.

Pratt, H.L. Jr., and J.C. Carrier

1995 Wild mating of the nurse sharks. National Geographic, Vol. 187, No. 5, May 1995, pp. 44-53.

Renz, M.

2002 Megalodon: Hunting the Hunter. Paleo Press, Leheigh Acres, Florida. Paperback with over 350 photographs; for fossil collectors.

Russo, R.

1984 Whitetip-the cave shark. Sea Frontiers, Vol. 30, No.1, January-February 1984, pp. 30-36. (Whitetip reef shark.)

Sibley, G., J.A. Seigel, and C.C. Swift, eds.

1985 *Biology of the white shark. Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, Vol. 9, pp.1-150. (Studies of white shark distribution, age/growth, physiology, predatory behavior and attacks along the West coast.)

Snelson, F.F. Jr., T.J. Mulligan, and S.E. Williams

1984 *Food habits, occurrence, and population structure of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, in Florida coastal lagoons. Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol.34, No. 1, pp. 71-80.

Taylor, G.

1994 Whale Sharks: the Giants of Ningaloo Reef. Foreword by Eugenie Clark. Angus & Robertson, New York. 176 pp.

Wood, L.

1986 Megamouth: new species of shark. Sea Frontiers/Sea Secrets Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 192-198.

Yano, K., J.F. Morrissey, Y. Yabumoto, and K. Nakaya, eds.

1997 Biology of the Megamouth Shark. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 203 pp. (21 papers on dissection of the megamouth caught in Hakata Bay, Fukuoka, Japan.)

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Sensory Systems

Atema, J., R.R. Fay, A.N. Popper, W.N. Tavolga, eds.

1988 *Sensory Biology of Aquatic Animals. Springer-Verlag, New York, London. 936 pp.

Gruber, S.H. and P. Morrissey

1978 Sharks: good vision or poor? Sea Frontiers, Vol. 24, No. 4, July-August 1978, pp. 229-236.

Hueter, R.E. and J.L. Cohen, eds.

1991 *Symposium, Vision in Elasmobranchs: A Comparative and Ecological Perspective. Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota, Florida, April 27-29, 1989. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Supplement 5, 1990. 182 pp.

Hodgson, E.S., and R.F. Mathewson, eds.

1978 Sensory Biology of Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia. 666 pp.

Klimley, P.

1995 See Selected Species

Moss, S.A.

1984 See General Section

Nelson, D.R., T.C. Tricas, and S. Gruber

2001 The Behavior and Sensory Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes: An Anthology in Memory of Donald R. Nelson. Kluwer Academic Publishing. 308 pp.

Zahuranec, B.J., ed.

1983 See General Section

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Additional Sources of Information

"Shark" by William R. Hall, MAS bulletin published by the University of Delaware Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service. Bulletin may be ordered from the Marine Communications Office, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. Phone (302) 831-8083. One copy free; multiple copies, $.25 each.

Sea World Education Department Booklet: Sharks and Their Relatives, 3rd edition, 1995, 30 pp. Write to Sea World, 7007 Sea World Drive, Orlando, Florida 32821 or call (407) 351-3600 to order. $5.00 each.

WEB Sites

American Elasmobranch Society home page:

Bibliography of the Megamouth Shark:

Bibliography of the Whale Shark:

California Department of Fish and Game: shark tagging program summary:

Mote Marine Laboratory:

ReefQuest Expeditions: a combination of shark pages and expedition pages. Use your search vehicle such as Google to locate the web site.

Shark Attacks:


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Prepared by the Department of Vertebrate Zoology,
National Museum of Natural History
in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
Smithsonian Institution

rev. 1/03


Smithsonian Information
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