|True Flies (Diptera)
Definition. Although many insects are termed "flies," only those having one pair of wings belong to the insect Order Diptera. Flies are also characterized by having a pair of balancing organs, called halteres, located just back of the base of the wings. Halteres are used for balancing in flight. There are a few flies, mostly parasites or inhabiting islands or alpine areas, that have no wings at all.
Immatures. The active immature stages of flies are called maggots, and most live in water or in some type of moist, rotting plant or animal tissue. There are exceptions, however, that feed only on living plants or animals. Maggots living in water usually have some type of breathing tube or gills with which they gain air.
General information. There are more than 110,000 described species of flies in the world. Flies are superb mimics, especially in the Families Bombyliidae (Bee flies), Syrphidae (Flower f lies) , and Asilidae (Robber f lies) . Bee flies are usually fast flying insects with appearances of small bees, while Robber Flies are commonly larger, slower flying, and a few resemble Bumble Bees. A fly known as the Delhi Sands flower-loving fly was designated as an endangered species in 1993 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This species has been found in sandy dunes and rolling terrain of two counties in southern California, and has been the subject of much controversy regarding the protection of some species of animals. Flies are found throughout the world, and exist in areas from the Arctic to the rain forests on the equator.
Benefits of flies to mankind. As in other kinds of insects, there are in the Order Diptera many flies that are beneficial to mankind. Flies that visit flowers are helpful in the pollination of flowering plants. The maggots of hover flies are welcomed by gardeners because they feed on aphids, reducing numbers of those pests. Many flies are parasitic, feeding on moth caterpillars, beetle grubs, and other pest species. Some species of gall midges, fruit flies and other families have been introduced to North America as weed biocontrol agents. Species of Drosophilidae have been used extensively in studies of genetics because of their short lifespans, giant salivary gland chromosomes, and ease of culturing.
Detriments of flies to mankind. Unfortunately, some flies, especially mosquitoes, transmit some of the most destructive diseases, notably malaria and yellow fever. The House Fly is known to be a carrier (vector) of many diseases, including anthrax, some forms of conjunctivitis, dysentery, typhoid fever and yaws. Some flies, such as the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, attack and spoil citrus and other fruits.
Kinds of flies. Some of the larger, common fly groups are placed in the following Families.
Cole, F. R. 1969. The Flies of Western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
McAlpine, J. F., et al, coordinators. 1981. Manual of Nearctic Diptera, 3 volumes. Canadian Govt. Publishing Centre, Quebec.
Merritt, Richard W., and Cummins, Kenneth W, editors. 1996. Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 3rd edition, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa.
Oldroyd, H. 1964. The Natural History of Flies. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Entomology Section,
Information Sheet Number 188
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