Sara Hallager
Biologist, Animal Programs

National Zoological Park
Smithsonian Institution
PO Box 37012 MRC 5507

Washington, DC 20013-7012


B.S. (1989) University of Maryland, College Park

Research Interests

My area of interest is primarily with kori bustards. I am the International Studbook keeper as well as the SSP (Species Survival Plan) Coordinator for the population of birds in the US. The goal of my research is to better understand kori bustards in captivity so that managers can improve husbandry standards and increase captive breeding.

Current Research Projects

-An Investigation into the Egg Temperature and Female Incubation Behavior in Captive Kori Bustards (Ardeotis kori) at the National Zoological Park -A behavioral study of kori bustards at the National Zoological Park. -Molt Patterns in Captive Kori Bustards -Assessing reproductive parameters in captive kori bustards (Ardeotis kori) using non-invasive fecal hormone analysis. -Health Evaluations of Free-Ranging Kori bustards in Kenya -An investigation into the egg temperature and incubation behavior in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the National Zoological Park

Current Publications

Miller, J., Hallager, S., Monfort, S., Newby, J., Bishop, K., Tidmus, S., Black, P., Houston, B., Matthee, C. and Fleischer, R. Phylogeographic analysis of nuclear and mtDNA supports subspecies designations in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).In Press

Siegel, C., Hallager, S. and Bailey, T. 2007. Bustards. In Encyclopedia of Aviculture. (G. Holland, Editor), Hancock House Publishers.

Fernandes, N. and Hallager S. 2007. Sunning Behavior in Kori Bustards (Ardeotis kori) at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park. Avicultural Magazine Vol.113, No.4, pp.145-152.

Hallager, S. and Lichtenberg, E.M. 2007. New Display Behavior in Male Kori Bustard (Ardeotis kori struthiunculus). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119(4): 750-755.

Lichtenberg, E.M. and Hallager, S. 2007. A description of commonly observed behaviors for the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori). Journal of Ethology 26(10: 17-34.

Hallager, S. 2006. A Preliminary Study of the Health Status of Kori Bustards (Ardeotis kori) in Kenya. Animal Keepers Forum 33 (12): 523-529.

Brostek, J., Hallager, S., and Powell, D. 2005. The Effect of Visitors on the Space Usage of Captive Kori bustards (Ardeotis kori). International Conference on Environmental Enrichment.

Hallager, S. 2005. Breeding and hand-rearing the Kori bustard Ardeotis kori at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, Washington, DC. International Zoo Yearbook 39: 143-161.

Baily, T., and Hallager, S. 2003. Management of Bustards in Captivity. Avicultural Magazine 109 (1): 1-8.

Hallager, S.. 2003. A description of copulation in the Kori Bustard Ardeotis kori struthiunculus. Bulletin British Ornithologist's Club 123(2): 125-129.

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