Microscopy: Technical Information Sheet

ACACIA MANGIUM

Mangium Acacia mangium Willd. Leguminosae (Mimosoideae)

The genus Acacia is composed of 600 to 800 species, 21 are native to the United States, with the rest native to the tropics and subtropics. The word acacia is the classical Greek name of a thorny tree of Egypt, thought to be of this genus, from the Greek word for thorn. The word mangium is the native Moluccan name "mangi-mangi gunong."

Other Common Names: Akasia, Black Wattle, Brown Salwood, Coast Myall, Hickory Wattle, Mountain Brigalow, Sally Wattle.

Distribution: Queensland, Australia, New Guinea and the Molucca Islands of Indonesia. It is planted in Sabah, Malaysia. It grows typically below 300 feet elevation, but can occur up to 2,000 feet. Mangium is a pioneer species, colonizing disturbed sites, such as field margins, railroad tracks and areas scarred by fire. It can be found naturally growing in wet sites on the edges of stands of melalueca or mangroves and in grasslands and along streams and rivers.

The Tree: Mangium is a tree which reaches 90 feet and diameters of 3 feet. The base of the bole is slightly fluted and lower branches are self-pruning. The light brown to dark brown bark is thick, rough, hard with furrows. Seedling leaves are pinnately compound, while mature leaves have no blade, the petiole is flattened, forming a phyllode. It produces loose clusters of whitish flowers, which later develop into blackish brown twisted pods.

General Wood Characteristics: The sapwood of mangium is narrow and pale yellow to light brown, while the heartwood is olive brown to gray brown, with darker streaks. It is hard, with a medium texture, strong and durable (not in contact with the ground). The grain shows an interlocked figure radially, but looks straight on the flatsawn surface.

Weight

    Weight
Moisture content Specific gravity lb/ft3 kg/m3
Green (119%)a 0.98 61 977
15%a 0.63 39 625
12%b 0.56 34 545
Ovendryb 0.50 NA NA

aReference (9).
bReference (13).

Microscopy: Technical Information Sheet

ACACIA MANGIUM

Mangium Acacia mangium Willd. Leguminosae (Mimosoideae)

The genus Acacia is composed of 600 to 800 species, 21 are native to the United States, with the rest native to the tropics and subtropics. The word acacia is the classical Greek name of a thorny tree of Egypt, thought to be of this genus, from the Greek word for thorn. The word mangium is the native Moluccan name "mangi-mangi gunong."

Other Common Names: Akasia, Black Wattle, Brown Salwood, Coast Myall, Hickory Wattle, Mountain Brigalow, Sally Wattle.

Distribution: Queensland, Australia, New Guinea and the Molucca Islands of Indonesia. It is planted in Sabah, Malaysia. It grows typically below 300 feet elevation, but can occur up to 2,000 feet. Mangium is a pioneer species, colonizing disturbed sites, such as field margins, railroad tracks and areas scarred by fire. It can be found naturally growing in wet sites on the edges of stands of melalueca or mangroves and in grasslands and along streams and rivers.

The Tree: Mangium is a tree which reaches 90 feet and diameters of 3 feet. The base of the bole is slightly fluted and lower branches are self-pruning. The light brown to dark brown bark is thick, rough, hard with furrows. Seedling leaves are pinnately compound, while mature leaves have no blade, the petiole is flattened, forming a phyllode. It produces loose clusters of whitish flowers, which later develop into blackish brown twisted pods.

General Wood Characteristics: The sapwood of mangium is narrow and pale yellow to light brown, while the heartwood is olive brown to gray brown, with darker streaks. It is hard, with a medium texture, strong and durable (not in contact with the ground). The grain shows an interlocked figure radially, but looks straight on the flatsawn surface.

 Weight

    Weight
Moisture content Specific gravity lb/ft3 kg/m3
Green (119%)a 0.98 61 977
15%a 0.63 39 625
12%b 0.56 34 545
Ovendryb 0.50 NA NA

a Reference (9).
b Reference (13).

Mechanical Properties

Property Greena Dryb
MOE 1.39x106lbf/in2 9.58 GPa 1.68x106lbf/in2 11.58 GPa
MOR 10.7x103lbf/in2 73.77 MPa 15.4x103lbf/in2 106.18 MPa
C|| 4.45x103lbf/in2 30.68 MPa 8.69x103lbf/in2 59.91 MPa
C_|_ NA NA NA NA
WML NA NA NA NA
Hardness NA NA 1100 lbf 4893 N
Shear|| 1.34x103lbf/in2 9.24 MPa 1.89x103lbf/in2 13.03 MPa

a Reference (9).
b Reference (13).

Drying and shrinkagea

  Percent of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)
Type of shrinkage 0%MC 6%MC 20%MC
Tangential 8.5 NA NA
Radial 2.5 NA NA
Volumetric NA NA NA

a Mangium seasons well, with negligible cupping or checking. Collapse can occur in early stages of drying in quartersawn boards. Reference (3).

Kiln Drying Schedule (No information available at this time.)

Working Properties: No problem in sawing or peeling (recovery low). Planes well. Sands easily. Drills easily and turns well with low pressure. Excellent nailing properties. No problems gluing using phenol and urea-formaldehyde adhesives.

Durability: Mangium is durable when well ventilated, but is not durable when used in contact with the ground.

Preservation: Mangium is easily impregnated with standard techniques (full cell pressure method). Heartwood moderate to easily treatable, sapwood is easy to treat.

Uses: Furniture, cabinets, handles of sporting goods, boxes, crates, door frames, window parts, moldings, veneer, light construction, fuel, particle board and pulp.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

Additional Reading & References Cited (in parentheses):

1. Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois & E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. USDA Forest Service, FPL General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57.

2. Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 948 pp.

3. Laurilla, R. 1992. Utilization potential of reforestation tree species in Kalimantan. M.Sc.(For), University of Helsinki, Department of Logging and Utilization of Forest Products.

4. Little, Jr., E.L.1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541, USGPO, Washington, DC.

5. Markwardt, L.J. and T.R.C. Wilson. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. USDA Forest Service, Tech. Bull. No. 479. USGPO, Washington, DC.

6. National Research Council. 1983. Innovations in tropical reforestation. Mangium and other fast growing Acacias for the humid tropics. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., 62 pp.

7. Nicholson, D.I. 1981. The natural occurrence and conservation status of Acacia mangium Willd. in Australia. Department of Forestry, Queensland, Technical note No.5.

8. Panshin, A.J. and C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 722 pp.

9. Peh, T.B. and K.C. Khoo. 1984. Timber properties of Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea, Paraserianthes falcataria and their utilization aspects. The Malaysian Forester 47(4):285-303.

10. Record, S.J. and R.W. Hess. 1943. Timbers of the new world. Yale University Press, New Haven, 640 pp.

11. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook 188.

12. Summitt, R. and A. Sliker. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Volume 4, wood. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. 459 pp.

13. USDA Forest Products Lab. 1983. Tests on one board of Acacia mangium.

Abbreviations

4/4 nominal 1-inch (standard 25.4-mm) thickness lbf pound-force
5/4 nominal 1-¼-inch (standard 32-mm) thickness m meter
6/4 nominal 1-½-inch (standard 38-mm) thickness MC moisture content
8/4 nominal 2-inch (standard 51-mm) thickness MOE modulus of elasticity
10/4 nominal 2-½-inch (standard 64-mm) thickness MOR modulus of rupture
12/4 nominal 3-inch (standard 76-mm) thickness Mpa megapascal (106 Pa)
16/4 nominal 4-inch (standard 102-mm) thickness N newton
C|| compression parallel to grain, maximum crushing strength NA information not available
C_|_ compression perpendicular to grain, stress at proportional limit Pa pascal
Dry 12 percent moisture content Shear|| shear parallel to grain, maximum shearing strength
Gpa gigapascal (109 Pa) SG specific gravity
Hardness side hardness WML work to maximum load
kJ kilojoule (103 J)