Skip navigation
Share this page

1 Unlike later land deeds, land grants from England were not recorded in public record books. The Beall family was one of the earliest to settle in Maryland and many histories have been written of the family. These reports, which include information on the various land grants, can be found at the DAR Library in Washington, DC and the Maryland State Archives in Annapolis, MD.

2 Samuel C. Busey. Pictures of the City of Washington in the Past. (Washington, DC: Wm. Ballantyne & Sons, 1898) 21-33.

3 Land Transfer Deed from George Beall to Benjamin Stoddert. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber A 1 Part 1, folio 255-257. The early land record books show that Stoddert was very active in purchasing and selling property during the years 1792- 1795.

4 Dumas Malone, ed. American Biographies, Vol. IX (NYC: Charles Scribner's & Sons, 1964) 62-64.

5 In the land transfer deed from Benjamin Stoddert to Walter Mackall it states "the buildings, improvements", not specifically mentioning the mills. From a personal letter by Mrs. Rebecca Stoddert it is known that the Stodderts owned a mill in the District of Columbia. Since no other mill property has been traced to the Stodderts in DC, it is therefore assumed that Stoddert constructed the Columbia Mills and that the "buildings, improvements" refer to Columbia Mills. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber F6, folio 95-97. Personal letter to Eliza Gantt from Rebecca Stoddert, August 4, 1799. Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Personal Papers of Rebecca S. Stoddert.

6 Land Transfer Deed from Benjamin Stoddert to Walter Mackall. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber F 6, folio 95-97.

7 Shoemaker, Benjamin D. Genealogy of the Shoemaker Family of Cheltenham, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1903) 30.

8 Land Transfer Deed from Walter Mackall to Jonathan Shoemaker. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber W 22, folio 112.

9 Mortgage agreement between Jonathan Shoemaker and Walter Mackall, September 19, 1803. Shoemaker paid $3,800 of $5,800 owed in 1803. His final payment was first made upon sale of the property in 1809 to Roger Johnson when Shoemaker paid another $3,800 to Mackall's estate. His payments with interest totaled $9,600. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records K10, folio 117-118, January 2, 1804. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records W22, folio 112, July 6, 1809.

10 Edwin Morris Betts, annotated. Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book (Princeton University Press, 1953) 342. There are also copies of numerous personal letters between Jonathan Shoemaker and Thomas Jefferson listed in this book volume.

11 Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Jonathan Shoemaker, January 16, 1807. Edwin Morris Betts, annotated. Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book, 1766-1824 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944) 365.

12 Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Jonathan Shoemaker, April 6, 1809. Edwin Morris Betts, annotated. Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book, 1766-1824 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944) 370-71.

13 Land Transfer Deed from Jonathan Shoemaker to Samuel Lukens et al. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber K 10, folio 117.

14 Land Transfer Deed from Jonathan Shoemaker to Roger Johnson. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber W 22, folio 109-111. Roger Johnson's will states that he owned several large tracts of land throughout the state of Maryland and even Pennsylvania. He left property with houses to nine of his ten surviving children, all except his son George.

15 Roberta Johnson Peter. "Johnson Family" (unknown date). Maryland Historical Society, 98 Filing Case A: Johnson file. National Archives, Record Group 21, Case Files #E 6, District of Columbia Civil Trials, December Term 1815, Trial of John A. Wilson vs. George Johnson, p. 180-299.

16 George Johnson's daughter, Roberta Johnson Peter in the "Johnson Family", wrote that her father's mill was "consumed by fire and he lost a large supply of flour."

17 Herman Steen. Flour Milling in America (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1963). Eugene S. Ferguson. Oliver Evans Inventive Genius of the American Industrial Revolution (Greenville, DE: the Hagley Museum, 1980) 14.

18 National Archives, Microfiche Room, Drawer M98-04, Roll Series M279, #17.

19 Civil Trial Records from 1814-20. National Archives, Record Group 21, #E1, Docket Books. Daniel Kemp vs. Johnson in 1814, Oliver Evans vs. Johnson in 1814, Wilson vs. Johnson in 1815, Falls Bridge Turnpike Company vs. Johnson in 1818, Johnson vs. Wallach in 1818, Bank of Columbia vs. Johnson in 1819, Zachariah Smart vs. Johnson in 1820.

20 Land Transfer Deed from Roger Johnson to James Dunlop, Junior. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber AT 44, folio 39-42.

21 John Quincy Adams wrote detailed descriptions of his transactions with Columbia Mills. George Johnson first approached Adams with the purchase idea in July of 1823. Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Adams Papers, John Quincy Adams Diary, Reel 37, July 11, 1823.

22 Land Transfer Deed from James Dunlop, Junior to John Quincy Adams. District of Columbia Land Records Liber WB 9, folio 157-159.

23 Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Adams Papers, John Quincy Adams Diary, Reels 37, 147, entries of July 11-20, 1823.

24 Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Adams Papers, John Quincy Adams Diary, Reels 36-40, entries of November 10, 1823, November 17, 1823, March 5, 1824, June 9, 1824, August 24, 1824, November 28, 1825. By January 1826, Johnson requested Adams to provide him with a reference for another position.

25 Library of Congress, Manuscripts Division, Adams Papers, Letters from John Quincy Adams to his son John Adams, Reels 493, 149, 492, letters dated June 1, 1831, June 14, 1831, June 29, 1831, and July 23, 1831.

26 Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Adams Papers, Letter from Louisa Catherine Adams to Charles Francis Adams, January 7, 1831, Reel 492.

27 Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Adams Papers, John Quincy Adams' Diary, June 11, 1835, Reel 152.

28 Land Transfer Deed from John Quincy Adams exd. to Peter McNamara. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Transfer Deed Liber 670, folio 293-295.

29 Land Transfer Deed from James Christmas to James Edwards, November 23, 1882. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Transfer Deed Liber 1024, folio 195-197. Land Transfer Deed from James Edwards to Pacificus Ord, February 18, 1884. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Transfer Deed Liber 1074, folio 13-16.

30 Roger Johnson's will dated February 14, 1831. Frederick County Recorder of Wills, Frederick, MD, Liber GME 1, folio 212.

31 Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Adams Papers, John Quincy Adams' Diary, July 11, 1823, Reel 37.

32 Land Transfer Deed from Joseph A. and Charles Johnson (sons of Roger Johnson) to Ashton Alexander on January 29, 1835. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Transfer Deed Liber WB 51, folio 280-282.

33 Several biographies have been published on the Alexander family. One of several sources to state that Alexandria, VA was named for Ashton Alexander's ancestors is the following. Howard A. Kelly and Walter L. Burrage. American Medical Biographies (Baltimore: Norman, Remington Company, 1920) 11.

34 University of Maryland at Baltimore, Health Science Library. The Transactions of the American Medical Association, Vol. XXXII (Philadelphia: Collins, 1881) 495-496.

35 Martin Luther King Library, Washingtoniana Division, Microfilm Reel 63 of "Daily National Intelligencer", June 33, 1841, front page.

36 Ibid.

37 Land Transfer Deed from Ashton Alexander to Henry Holt on December 21, 1844. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber WB 114, folio 205-208.

38 Although there is no documentation of these changes, it can be deduced that Dr. Holt added the north entrance pavilion with boxed-in wooden staircase because of the obvious dividing line between the surfaces, breaking up the symmetry of the central block. The south verandahs, no longer standing, had a picturesque, Victorian quality to them and were built of simple pieces of lumber. The additions were built in a style inconsistent with the neo-Palladian aspects of the structure.

39 Land Transfer Deed from Henry Holt to Thomas Jackson (a family relation), June 5, 1854. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records JAS 78, folio 90-93.

40 Land Transfer Deed from Dr. Henry Holt et al to the Commissioners of the Zoological Park. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber 1424, boundary map, no page number listed.

41 Letter to Carlisle, Secretary of the Treasury, from Goode, Acting Secretary, June 25, 1896. Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 34, Box 25, Folder 5.4.

42 Specifications and structural repairs under the direction of W.R. Emerson from 1890-92, Glenn Brown from 1892-99 and Hornblower & Marshall from 1900-03.

43 Memorandum from Theodore Reed, January 24, 1961. National Zoological Park Administrative file on Holt House.

44 Land Transfer Deed from Charles Frances Adams to Gurden Snowden et al. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber 630, folio 382.

45 Memorandum issued by the Shapiro office in 1951.

46 Wesley E. Pippinger. District of Columbia Death Records 8/1/1874 - 7/31/1897 (MD: Family Line Publishing Co., 1997) xv, xiii. Historical Society of Washington, DC.

47 Letter to the Commissioners from the Honorary Appraisers, May 15, 1889. Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 31, Box 78, Folder 1. 48Summary report of the Zoological Park Commission meeting, July 2, 1889. Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 31, Box 78, Folder 1.48

49 Application for Disinterment from the Colored Union Benevolent Cemetery, May 15, 1941. District of Columbia Archives, Public Health Records, Disinterment Permits, 1937-48, Accession 93-011. Land Transfer Deed to Shapiro, Inc. from Helen Wells. District of Columbia Recorder of Deeds, Land Records Liber 7651, folio 421.

50 Memorandum to the Friend's Society, written by Harold Stabler, Treasurer for the Quakers, March 13, 1951. Harold Stabler also received a letter from the Shapiro's lawyers stating that they were paying the taxes. Letter to Harold Stabler, Treasurer to the Quakers, from John Wilson, lawyer to Shapiro, Inc., July 27, 1951.

51 Superior Court of the District of Columbia, Probate Division, Report issued November 1, 1986.

52 Ibid.