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The Proposed National Air and Space Museum (NASM)
Dulles Center

Phase I Archeological Identification
and
Phase II Archeological Evaluation

Project Number 883506
Fairfax County, Virginia

Prepared by:
Dames & Moore, Inc.
7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 700
Bethesda, MD 20814

October 1997

[Contents]     [Figures]     [Construction Photos]     [Tables]     [Introduction]


Table of Contents


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1 Location of Proposed NASM Dulles Center in Northern Virginia
Figure 1-2 Proposed Facilities of the NASM Dulles Center
Figure 1-3 Location of NASM Project Area on Herndon USGS Quad
Figure 3-1 NASM Center Area of Potential Effect
Figure 4-1 Map of Fairfax County, Virginia, 1745-1748, From Stephenson (1981)
Figure 4-2 Map of Northern Virginia, 1807, From Stephenson (1981)
Figure 4-3 Map of Northern Virginia, 1826, From Stephenson (1981)
Figure 4-4 Map of the Dranesville District, Fairfax County, 1879, From Stephenson (1981)
Figure 4-5 Previously Identified Archeological Sites in the Vicinity of the Proposed NASM Center
Figure 5-1 Excavating and Screening a Shovel Test Pit, West Cloverleaf, View from the East
Figure 5-2 Recording a Shovel Test Pit, West Cloverleaf, View from the South
Figure 5-3 Gravel Service Road, Central Parcel, View from the East
Figure 5-4 Planted Pines, Central Parcel, in the Vicinity of Site 44FX693, View from the West
Figure 5-5 Deciduous Woods, Central Parcel, View from the East
Figure 5-6 Grass Field, North Taxiway, View from the Southwest
Figure 7-1 Central Parcel Finds
Figure 7-2 Representative Soil Profiles from the Central Parcel
Figure 7-3 Leeton Site, View from the North
Figure 7-4 Leeton Site, View from the South
Figure 7-5 Historic Site A, Cultivated Flowers, View from the Northeast
Figure 7-6 Historic Site A, Well, View from the Southwest
Figure 7-7 Barnsfield/Route 28 Interchange
Figure 7-8 Representative Soil Profiles from the Barnsfield Road/Route 28 Interchange
Figure 7-9 Pump Site, Water Pump, View from the Northwest
Figure 7-10 Pump Site, View from the Southwest
Figure 7-11 East Parcel Road
Figure 7-12 Central Parcel Road, Jeep Road, and Utility Corridor
Figure 7-13 North Taxiway
Figure 7-14 Representative Soil Profiles from the Access Routes
Figure 7-15 Historic Site B, Square Depression, View from the West
Figure 7-16 Historic Site B, Well, View from the Northwest
Figure 8-1 Location of Phase II Test Units, Pump Site (44FX2257)
Figure 8-2 Representative Soil Profiles From Phase II Excavation of the Pump Site


Construction Photos

Fall 2000

Blasting rock to clear the site.
Photo by George Golden,
Smithsonian Office of Physical Plant
March 2002
April 2002
May 2002


LIST OF TABLES

Table 4-1Historic and Prehistoric Archeological Resources in the Vicinity of the Proposed NASM Project Area
Table 7-1Summary of Artifact Recovered from Phase I Survey
Table 8-1Summary of Artifacts Recovered from Eight Phase II Units, Pump Site
Table 9-1Summary and Recommendations for Sites Investigated by Phase I and Phase II Fieldwork for NASM Dulles Center


TABLE 1:
Archeological Sites Investigated for the NASM Dulles Center Project

Site Name Site Number Parcel and Location Site Date and Type Representative Artifacts Recommendation
Prehistoric Site 691 44FX691 SE Central Parcel, along Cain Branch Prehistoric lithic scatter 1 Quartz flake Not significant, disturbed, limited resources
Prehistoric Site 692 44FX692 S Central Parcel, along Cain Branch Prehistoric lithic scatter 1 Quartz flake
1 Chert flake
1 Quartz scraper
Not significant, disturbed, limited resources
Prehistoric Site 693 44FX693 SW Central Parcel, along Cain Branch Prehistoric lithic scatter 2 Quartz flakes
1 Chalcedony flake
1 Quartzite scraper shell
Not significant, limited resources
Prehistoric Site 694 44FX694 S Central Parcel, along Cain Branch Prehistoric lithic scatter 2 Quartz flakes Not significant, disturbed, limited resources
Leeton 44FX2256 Center of the eastern boundary of the Central Parcel Early 19th century through 1960, domestic and farm complex, remains of 11 structures Brick, cut and wire nails, whiteware, redware, pearlware, glass, plastic Not significant, recorded in written doc. and lacks integrity
Historic Site A 44FX2258 NE corner of the Central Parcel Early to mid-20th century, domestic, field-stone well, surface artifacts, garden Brick, porcelain, bottle and window glass, wire and cut nails, hard white earthenware Not significant, recent date
Pump Site 44FX2257 SW corner of the West Cloverleaf in the East Parcel Late 18th to mid-19th century, with early 20th century and prehistoric components, domestic, possible tenant farm, Late 19th century pump Whiteware, pearlware, creamware, stoneware, kaolin pipe fragment, bottle and window glass, iron fragments, wrought, cut and wire nails, quartz flakes Phase II investigations indicate site has been heavily disturbed by plowing and associated erosion. Not significant
Historic Site B 44FX2259 Southern terminus of the North Taxiway, Alternative A in the North Parcel Primarily late 19th to mid- 20th century, possible 18th or early 19th century, domestic, field-stone well, square depression Blown, molded and machine-made bottles, whiteware, glasses, mason jars, metal tub, bed spring Potentially significant, Avoided as a result of project design changes


APPENDIX D ARTIFACT CATALOG

Summary of Artifacts Recovered From Phase I Survey

Summary of Artifacts Recovered From Eight Phase Ii Units, Pump Site

Dulles Artifact Catalog

Lttton Plantation, 44FX2256

Historic Site A, 44FX2258

Access Roads and Corridors

Historic Site B, 44FX2259

Cloverleaves Artifact Catalog

Pump Site, 44FX2257

Pump Site, 44FX2257, Phase II Artifact Catalog


1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 THE PROJECT

The Smithsonian Institution (the Smithsonian) proposes to construct the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Dulles Center at Washington Dulles International Airport, in the extreme western portion of Fairfax County, Virginia (Figure 1-1). The NASM facility will house, restore and exhibit artifacts representing air and space travel. NASM Dulles Center (the Center) will include an aircraft storage and exhibit building, a spacecraft storage and exhibit building, a collection storage and archival storage building, a restoration facility, educational facilities, a large-format theater, food service, and gift shops. The Center will serve an estimated 3.2 million visitors each year, many of them from the Washington-Baltimore region. The main features of the proposed facility are shown in Figure 1-2.

The Smithsonian has retained the services of Helmuth, Obata, and Kassabaum (HOK) to design the proposed facility; HOK had previously designed the NASM main facility in Washington, D.C. Dames & Moore (D&M) is sub-contractor to HOK in the areas of natural and cultural resources, supporting the Smithsonian's studies and documentation consistent with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Cultural resources documentation for the project, or undertaking, includes this report of Phase I archeological identification and Phase II archeological evaluation in the area of the proposed site of the Center, which addresses the requirements of NHPA Section 106.

general map of site and surrounding towns
Figure 1-1.
Location of NASM Dulles Center
in Virginia
map of proposed roads, museum facility and parking lot
Figure 1-2.
Proposed Construction Map

 

1.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREA

The project is located on an approximately 200-acre tract of land lying within and adjacent to the Washington Dulles International Airport in Fairfax County, Virginia. Figure 1-3 shows the location of the project area on the Herndon, Virginia, USGS Quadrangle map. It is south of the airport's main terminal building and adjacent facilities. The area is mainly wooded with a less than 30-year-old growth of deciduous and coniferous trees. Parts of the project adjacent to Runway 36 Right include grassy fields. The project area is traversed by gravel access roads and an asphalt and concrete curbed roadway.

1.3 REPORT ORGANIZATION

This report of Phase I and Phase II archeological investigations conforms to the Commonwealth of Virginia's guidelines for archeological reporting (1987, 1991).

topographical map of proposed area

Figure 1-3.
Location of NASM Project Area
on Herndon USGS Quad

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[Contents]     [Figures]     [Construction Photos]     [Tables]     [Introduction]

(Ch. 2)   (Ch. 3)   (Ch. 4)   (Ch. 5)   (Ch. 6)   (Ch. 7)   (Ch. 8)   (Ch. 9)   (Ch. 10)