Phase I archeological investigations have been completed on the 175-acre Area of Potential Effect for the proposed NASM Dulles Center. The Phase I fieldwork included pedestrian reconnaissance, excavation of approximately 1300 shovel tests on a 75-foot interval, and reinvestigation of four previously identified prehistoric sites.
Eight archeological sites were investigated for the NASM project, including four prehistoric sites (that had previously been identified) and four historic period sites that had been discovered during the Phase I survey. Seven of the sites do not appear to be eligible for listing in the National Register. One site, Historic Site B (44FX2259), was found to be potentially significant, but was not subject to Phase II evaluation. This is because design changes for the project have placed the Historic Site B outside of the Area of Potential Effect for the proposed NASM Dulles Center. A summary of findings and recommendations for the eight sites is given in Table 9-1.
Phase II archeological investigations have been completed at the Pump Site (44FX2257). The Pump Site is an historic archeological resource identified by Phase I work within the Area of Potential Effect. Phase II investigations included the excavation of eight 5 by 5-foot excavation units and approximately thirty additional shovel tests. Investigations for both Phase I and Phase II were carried out according to the Virginia Department of Historic Resources (VDHR) guidelines for archeological investigations.
Summary and Recommendations for Sites Investigated by
Phase I and Phase II Fieldwork for NASM Dulles Center
|Site Name||Site Number||Parcel and Location||Site Date and Type||Representative Artifacts||Recommendation|
|Prehistoric Site 691||44FX691||SE Central Parcel, along Cain Branch (Figure 7-1)||Prehistoric lithic scatter||1 Quartz flake||Not significant, disturbed, limited resources|
|Prehistoric Site 692||44FX692||S Central Parcel, along Cain Branch (Figure 7-1)||Prehistoric lithic scatter||1 Quartz flake|
1 Chert flake
1 Quartz scraper
|Not significant, disturbed, limited resources|
|Prehistoric Site 693||44FX693||SW Central Parcel, along Cain Branch (Figure 7-1)||Prehistoric lithic scatter||2 Quartz flakes, |
1 Chalcedony flake
1 Quartzite scraper shell
|Not significant, limited resources|
|Prehistoric Site 694||44FX694||S Central Parcel, along Cain Branch (Figure 7-1)||Prehistoric lithic scatter||2 Quartz flakes||Not significant, disturbed, limited resources|
|Leeton||44FX2256||Center of the eastern boundary of the Central Parcel (Figure 7-1)||Early 19th century through 1960, Domestic and farm complex, remains of 11 structures||Brick, cut and wire nails, whiteware, redware, pearlware, glass, plastic||Not significant, recorded in written doc. and lacks integrity|
|Historic Site A||44FX2258||NE corner of the Central Parcel (Figure 7-1)||Early to mid 20th century, Domestic, field-stone well, surface artifacts, garden||Brick, porcelain, bottle and window glass, wire and cut nails, hard white earthenware||Not significant, recent date|
|Pump Site||44FX2257||SW corner of the West Cloverleaf in the East Parcel (Figure 7-7)||Late 18th to mid 19th century, with early 20th century and prehistoric components, Domestic, possible tenant farm,||Late 19th century Pump |
Whiteware, pearlware, creamware, stoneware, kaolin pipe frag., bottle and window glass, iron frag., wrought, cut and wire nails, quartz flakes
Site lacks stratigraphic integrity based on Phase II investigations
|Historic Site B||44FX2259||Southern terminus of the North Taxiway, Alternative A in the North Parcel (Figure 7-13)||Primarily late 19th to mid 20th century, possible 18th or early 19th century, Domestic, field-stone well, square depression||Blown, molded and machine-made bottles, whiteware, glasses, mason jars, metal tub, bed spring||Potentially significant, Avoided as a result of project design changes|
No new prehistoric sites were identified by the field investigations. Dames & Moore confirmed the location of prehistoric sites 44FX691, 44FX692, 44FX693, and 44FX694 in the Central Parcel. The areas of sites 44FX691 and 692 have been disturbed by logging vehicles, as evidenced by deep, cross-cutting tire ruts left by utility vehicles and disturbed soil profiles encountered during shovel testing. Four quartz flakes and non-diagnostic shell fragments were found at Site 693, located on a relatively high, flat area. Two flakes were found at Site 694, located on the edge of a cleared area that had been disturbed by the installation of a sewer. None of these sites is believed to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places due to limited resources and lack of stratigraphic integrity.
Four historic sites were identified during the Phase I survey of the Dulles Airport project area. Two of the four sites (the Pump Site and Historic Site B) were considered to potentially contain significant information; the sites required further investigation or project design changes to avoid construction impacts.
The Pump Site was identified during the Phase I investigation in the southwest quadrant of the proposed Barnsfield Road/Route 28 interchange. The Pump Site dates primarily to the Antebellum period, but may also include smaller nineteenth century, late eighteenth century and prehistoric components. Subsequent Phase II investigation found that the site possessed no stratified deposits, intact soil features, or structures below the surface. Subsurface deposits of the site lie entirely within the soil zone that has been disturbed by previous plowing. No site components were identified beneath the plowzone. Therefore the site does not appear to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places.
Leeton and Historic Site A were identified in the Central Parcel. Walkover survey around Leeton indicates that the farm complex was substantially upgraded throughout the twentieth century, a process that has impacted the remains of any earlier occupations. The site does not appear to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places due to the lack of integrity of its nineteenth century occupation. Historic Site A dates from the early to mid-twentieth century and does not appear to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places due to its relatively recent date.
Historic Site B is located near the southern end of the north taxiway. The site appears to be the remains of a small rural residence consisting of tenant or support structures for a larger facility, or possibly an independent facility. Due to the possible eighteenth-century date of the site, the resource could potentially yield important information about area history; the site may be significant and may be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Historic Site B was identified by shovel testing and surface reconnaissance carried out for the present Phase I investigation. Phase II evaluation of Historic Site B was not undertaken; the project was redesigned and the effect was avoided.
Phase I and Phase II archeological investigations described in the foregoing document and summarized in the previous section have been completed consistant with the applicable cultural resource requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and its implementing regulations (36CFR800), and following Virginia Department of Historic Resources guidelines for Phase I and Phase II archeological investigations (1992). Based on these investigations it is the recommendation of Dames & Moore that the proposed construction of the NASM Dulles Center does not have the potential to impact any significant archeological resources or other historic properties. Those properties identified within the Area of Potential Effect have been found to lack stratigraphic integrity and/or the potential to contribute to important research themes and therefore appear not to meet the criteria for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Further, areas within the Area of Potential Effect but outside of the area of these identified sites have been found to be entirely lacking in substantial cultural resources of any kind, finds being limited to isolated and limited occurrences of prehistoric and historic archeological artifacts.
Based on these findings Dames & Moore recommends that the proposed NASM Dulles Center project will have no effect on archeological properties listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. No further archeological investigations are necessary prior to construction unless the Area of Potential Effect changes. Further coordination would be required if archeological resources (including artifacts, structural remains, or human remains) are encountered during construction activities.
|Introduction||Chap. 2: Historic Preservation Compliance|
|Chap. 3: Project Area Description||Chap. 4: Background Research|
|Chap. 5: Field Investigations||Chap. 6: Laboratory Investigations|
|Chap. 7: Archeological Findings of Phase I Survey||Chap. 8: Archeological Findings of Phase II Survey|
|Chap. 9: Summary and Recommendations||Chap. 10: Bibliography|
|Related Archaeology Websites|