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Selected References on the Sirenia: Dugong, Manatee, Stellar's Sea Cow and Relatives

The National Museum of Natural History receives numerous requests from the general public, universities, public and private institutions, and professionals for information on the Sirenia: Dugongs and Manatees. This bibliography is meant to serve as an introductory guide to that subject listing publications which for the most part are in print or available from technical information services. It has been divided into three categories: technical, general, and periodicals. The general and periodical categories provide several references for young school children. Additional technical references may be located in technical journals and indices such as the Journal of Mammalogy, Wildlife Review, Zoological Record, and Biological Abstracts. The publications listed are not available from the Smithsonian Institution. They can be obtained from most large public or university libraries or can be requested through an interlibrary loan.







Allen, G.M.
l942 Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere. Special Publication No. ll. American Committee on International Wildlife Protection, Washington, DC. 620 pp. l972 reprint by Cooper Square Publishers, New York.
Allen, J.A.
l882 Preliminary List of Works and Papers Relating to the Mammalian Orders Cetacea and Sirenia. Bulletin of the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 399-562. l974 reprint by Arno Press, New York.
Andersen, H.T. (Editor)
l969 The Biology of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, New York. 5ll pp.
Anderson, P.K.
l982 Studies of Dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia. I. Analysis of Population Size, Composition, Dispersion and Habitat Use on the Basis of Aerial Survey. Australian Wildlife Research, Vol. 9, No. l, pp. 69-84.
l982 Studies of Dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia. II. Surface and Subsurface Observations. Australian Wildlife Research, Vol. 9, No. l, pp. 85-99.
Anderson, P.K.
1989 Deliberate Foraging on Macro-invertebrates by Dugongs. National Geographic Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Winter 1989,pp. 4-6.
Anderson, P.K. and A. Birtles
l978 Behavior and Ecology of the Dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia): Observations in Shoalwater and Cleveland Bays, Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research, Vol. 5, No. l, pp. l-23.
Anderson, P.K. and G.E. Heinsohn
l978 The Status of the Dugong and Dugong Hunting in Australian Waters: a Survey of Local Perceptions. Biological Conservation, Vol. l3, pp. l3-26. (Cites additional papers of current Australian dugong research.)
Barnes, L.G., D.P. Domning, and C.E. Ray
1985 Status of Studies of Fossil Marine Mammals. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 15-53.
Beehler, I.E. and J.J. O'Shea
1988 Distribution and Mortality of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the Southeastern United States: a Compilation and Review of Recent Information. 2 Vols, 613 pp. (Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Document No.PB 88-207980/AS
Bertram, G.C.L.
l963 In Search of Mermaids: the Manatees of Guiana. Peter Davies, London. l8l pp.
l974 Conservation of Sirenia: Current Status and Perspectives for Action. Occasional Paper No. l2, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, Switzerland. 20 pp.
Bertram, G.C.L. and C.K.R. Bertram
l973 The Modern Sirenia: Their Distribution and Status. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 297-338.
Best, R.C.
l98l Foods and Feeding Habits of Wild and Captive Sirenia. Mammal Review, Vol. ll, No. l, pp. 3-29.
Brandt, J.F.
l849 Contributions to Sirenology, Being Principally an Illustrated Natural History of Rhytina. (Orig. pub. l846 in Latin) l22 pp. (l974 translation available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA22l6l. Order No. TT 72-56004.)
Brownell, R. L. Jr., and K. Ralls (Editors)
l98l The West Indian Manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March l978. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee. l54 pp. (Copies available from the Florida Audubon Society, P.O. drawer 7, Maitland, FL 3275l. Technical summary of manatee research.)
Colmenero-Rolon, L.C., and B.E. Zarate
1990 Distribution, Status and Conservation of the West Indian Manatee in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Biological Conservation, Vol. 52, pp. 27-35.
Crandall, L.S.
l964 The Management of Wild Animals in Captivity. University of Chicago Press, Illinois. 76l pp. (Sirenia, pp. 48l- 486.)
Domning, D.P.
l977 Observations on the Myology of Dugong dugon (Muller). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 226. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 57 pp.
l977 An Ecological Model for Late Tertiary Sirenian Evolution in the North Pacific Ocean. Systematic Zoology, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 352-362. (December l976 issue)
l978 The Myology of the Amazonian Manatee, Trichechus ininguis (Natterer) (Mammalia: Sirenia). Acta Amazonica, Vol. 8, No. 2, Supl. l, 80 pp., 50 figs., 8 tabs.
l978 Sirenian Evolution in the North Pacific Ocean. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, ll8: xi + l76, l8 pls., 37 figs., 27 tabs.
l98l Sea Cows and Sea Grasses. Paleobiology, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 4l7-420.
l98l Distribution and Status of Manatees Trichechus spp. Near the Mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil. Biological Conservation, Vol. l9, No. 2 (l980-8l), pp. 85-97.
l982 Evolution of Manatees: A Speculative History. Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 599-6l9, 9 text figs.
l982 Commercial Exploitation of Manatees Trichechus in Brazil c. l785-l973. Biological Conservation, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. l0l-l26.
1988 Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean Region.I. Metaxytherium floridanum Hay, 1922. Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 395-426. (First of a series of papers on the systematics and paleobiology of Caribbean and W. Atlantic sirenians.)
1994 A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Sirenia. In A. Berta and T.A. Demeréré (Editors), Contributions in Marine Mammal Paleontology Honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. Proceedings San Diego Society of Natural History, 29, pp. 177-189.

In Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia. Press Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, No. 80. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. (Comprehensive guide to the technical and popular literature taking in the last 500 years.)

Domning, D.P., and V. de Buffrénil
1991 Hydrostasis in the Sirenia: Quantitative Data and Functional Interpretations. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, October 1991, pp. 331-368.
Domning, D.P., and L-A. C. Hayek
1986 Interspecific and Intraspecific Morphological Variation in Manatees (Sirenia: Trichechus). Marine Mammal Science Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1986, pp. 87-144.
Domning, D.P., G.S. Morgan, and C.E. Ray
l982 North American Eocene Sea Cows (Mammalia: Sirenia). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, No. 52. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 69 pp.
Domning, D.P. and C.E. Ray
1986 The Earliest Sirenian (Mammalia: Dugongidae) from the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 263-276.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

1979 Mammals in the Seas. FAO Fisheries Series No. 5, Vol. 2. Pinniped Species Summaries and Report on Sirenians. FAO Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research Working Party on Marine Mammals. FAO, Rome. 151 pp. (Sirenians, pp. 139-151)
1982 Mammals in the Seas. FAO Fisheries Series No. 5, Vol. 4. Small Cetaceans, Seals, Sirenians, and Otters. FAO Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research Working Party on Marine Mammals. Selected Papers of the Scientific Consultation on the Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals and Their Environment, held in Bergen, Norway in 1976. FAO, Rome. 531 pp.
Forsten, A. and P.M. Youngman
l982 Hydrodamalis gigas. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species, No. l65, pp. l-3, May 25, l982.
Harrison, R.J. (Editor)
l977 The Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals. Vol. 3. Academic Press, London, New York. 428 pp.
Harrison, R.J. and J.E. King
l980 Marine Mammals. 2nd ed. Hutchinson & Co. London, Melbourne. l92 pp., 12 figs. (Sirenians: pp. 150-175)
Hartman, D.S.
1974 Distribution, Status and Conservation of the Manatee in the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory Report, Contract No. l4-l6-0008-748. NTIS Document No. PB81-140725. v-246 pp. (Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.)
l979 Ecology and Behavior of the Manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida. American Society Mammalogists, Special Publication, No. 5. l53 pp. (Readable summary of manatee natural history. Available from the Secretary of the American Society of Mammalogists; current address provided in recent issues of the Journal of Mammalogy.)
Heinsohn, G.E.
l972 A Study of Dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Northern Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.205-2l3, April l972.
Heinsohn, G. and H. Marsh
1984 The Sirens of Northern Australia: the Dugongs. In Archer, M. and Clayton, G. (Editors), Vertebrate Zoogeography and Evolution in Australasia (animals in space & time). Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia, pp.1003-1010.
Howell, A.B.
l930 Aquatic Mammals. Their Adaptations to Life in the Water. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. 338 pp. l970 reprint by Dover Press.
Husar, S.L.
1975 A Review of the Literature of the Dugong (Dugong dugon). Wildlife Research Report 4. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 30 pp., photographs. (Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Stock No. 0-572-560.)
l977 The West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus). Wildlife Research Report 7. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 22 pp.
l977 Trichechus inunguis. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species, No. 72, 4 pp., 3 figs., June l5, l977. (Amazonian Manatee) (Available from the Secretary of the American Society of Mammalogists.)
l978 Dugong dugon. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species, No. 88, 7 pp., 4 figs., January 6, l978. (Available as above.)
l978 Trichechus manatus. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species, No. 93, 5 pp., 3 figs., January 6,l978. (West Indian Manatee) (Available as above.)
l978 Trichechus senegalensis. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species, No. 89, 3 pp., 3 figs., January 6, l978. (African Manatee) (Available as above.)
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ( IUCN ) cont. Red Data Book. Vol. I, Mammals. IUCN, Morges, Switzerland. Arranged taxonomically; published in loose leaf form with periodic issues. Four sirenian species accounts updated.
Jones, S.
l967 The Dugong: Its Present Status in the Seas Round India with Observations on its Behavior in Captivity. International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 7, pp. 2l5-220.
Kaiser, H.E.
l974 Morphology of the Sirenia. A Macroscopic and X-Ray Atlas of the Osteology of Recent Species. S.Karger, Basel, London, New York. 78 pp., 64 pls.
Leutenegger, M. (Compiler)
1982 Bibliographie der Sirenen (Trichechidae) Zool. Gart. (New Series) Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 81-105.
Marine Mammal Commission
1988 Habitat Protection Needs for West Indian Manatees on the East Coast of Florida and Georgia. 107 pp. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC. (Status of East coast manatee populations with recommendations to improve protection of the species and habitat in that area.)
Marsh, H.E.
1988 An Ecological Basis for Dugong Conservation in Australia. In M.L. Augee (Editor), Marine Mammals of Australasia: Field Biology and Captive Management. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Australia, pp. 9-21.
1989 Mass Stranding of Dugongs by a Tropical Cyclone in Northern Australia. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 78-84.
1989 Biological Bases for Managing Dugongs in the Great Barrier Marine Park. Final report in 5 volumes to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, P.O. Box 1379, Townsville 4810, Australia.
Marsh, H. (Editor)
l98l The Dugong. Proceedings of a Seminar/Workshop held at James Cook University 8-l3 May l979. James Cook University of North Queensland, Department of Zoology.400 pp. 1985 reprint available from Bookshop, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville Q4811 Australia.
Marsh, H., G.E. Heinsohn and L.M. Marsh
1984 Breeding Cycle, Life History and Population Dynamics of the Dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugongidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 32, pp. 767-788.
Marsh, H., T.J. O'Shea and R.C. Best
1986 Research on Sirenians. Ambio, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 177- 180. (Trichechus senegalensis, T. manatus, T.inunguis, and Dugong dugon.)
Marsh, H., and W.K. Saalfeld
1990 The Distribution and Abundance of Dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park South of Cape Bedford. Australian Wildlife Research, Vol. 17, pp. 511-524.
Marsh, H., A.V. Spain and G.E. Heinsohn
l978 Physiology of the Dugong. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 6lA, pp. l59-l68. (Cites additional papers on the Sirenia.)
Mohr, E.
l957 Sirenen oder Seekuhe. Die Neue Brehm-Bucherei. No. l97. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg, Lutherstadt. 6l pp., 70 illus. ( History and biology of the Sirenia.)
Moore, J.
l956 Observations of Manatees in Aggregations. American Museum of Natural History Novitates, No. l8ll, 24 pp., 5 figs.
Murie, J.
l872 On the Form and Structure of the Manatee (Manatus americanus). Transactions Zoological Society of London, Vol. 8, Part V, pp. l27-202, pls. l7-26.
Nowak, R.
1991 Walker's Mammals of the World. 5th ed. 2 Vols. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 1629 pp. , bl. and wh. photographs. (Sirenia, Vol. II, pp. 1293-1302.)
O'Shea, T.J.
1988 The Past, Present, and Future of Manatees in the Southeastern United States: Realities, Misunderstandings, and Enigmas. In R.R. Odom, K.A. Riddleberger, and J.C. Ozier (Editors). Proceedings Third Southeastern Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Symposium. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, pp. 184-204.
O'Shea, T.J., B.B. Ackerman, and H.F. Percival (Editors)
1992 Interim Report of the Technical Workshop on Manatee Population Biology. Manatee Population Research Report No. 10. Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Florida, Gainesville. 83 pp.
O'Shea, T.J., M. Correa-Viana, M.E. Ludlow, and J.G. Robinson
1988 Distribution, Status, and Traditional Significance of the West Indian Manatee, Trichechus manatus, in Venezuela. Biological Conservation, Vol. 46, pp. 281-301.
O'Shea, T.J., and M.E. Ludlow
1992 Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). In S.R. Humphrey (Editor). Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol 1: Mammals. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, pp. 190-200
Perrin, W.E. and A.C. Myrick Jr. (Editors)
l980 Age Determination of Toothed Whales and Sirenians. Special Issue 3 of the International Whaling Commission Special Reports. Report and Papers of a Meeting on the Age Determination of Odontocetes and Sirenians held in La Jolla September l978. International Whaling Commission, Red House, Station Rd., Histon, Cambridge. 229 pp.
Petit, G.
l955 Ordre des Sireniens, Pp. 9l8-l00l, figs. 9l3-960, In Grasse, P.P., Traite de Zoologie XVII. Fasc. I. Masson et Cie, Paris. ll70 pp. (Classification, biology, natural history, distribution and evolution of the Sirenia.)
Powell, J.A., D.W. Belitsky, and G.B. Rathbun
1981 Status of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 642-646.
Powell, J.A., and G.B. Rathbun
1984 Distribution and Abundance of Manatees along the Northern Coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Science, Vol.7, No. 1, pp. 1-28.
Rathbun, G.B., J.P. Reid, and G. Carowan
1990 Distribution and Movement Patterns of Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Northwestern Peninsular Florida. Florida Marine Research Publications, Vol. 48, pp. 1-33.
Reeves, R.R., B.S. Stewart, and S. Leatherwood
1992 The Sierra Club Handbook of Seals and Sirenians. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. 359 pp. (Species accounts: Part III, pp. 259-290.)
Reinhart, R.H.
l959 A Review of the Sirenia and Desmostylia. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, Vol. 36, No. l, l46 pp., l4 pls, l9 text figs.
l976 Fossil Sirenians and Desmostylids from Florida and Elsewhere. Florida State Museum Bulletin Biological Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. l87-300, 39 figs.
Reynolds, J.E., III
l98l Aspects of the Social Behavior and Herd Structure of a Semi-isolated Colony of West Indian Manatees, Trichechus manatus. Mammalia, Tome 45, No. 4, pp. 43l-45l.
l98l Behavior Patterns in the West Indian Manatee, with Emphasis on Feeding and Diving. Florida Science, Vol.44, No. 4, pp. 233-242.
Reynolds, J.E. III, and K.D. Haddad (Editors)
1990 Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information System as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia. Report No. 49, Florida Marine Research, Florida Department of Natural Resources, St. Petersburg. 57 pp.
Reynolds, J.E. III, and D.K. Odell
1991 Manatees and Dugongs. Facts on File, New York. 192 pp. (As a general introduction to Sirenians, it is most up-to-date and comprehensive work.)
Ridgway, S.H. (Editor)
l972 Mammals of the Sea: Biology and Medicine. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. 8l2 pp., many figs.
Ridgway, S.H. and R. Harrison (Editors)
1985 Handbook of Marine Mammals. Vol. 3, The Sirenians and Baleen Whales. Academic Press, London, Florida. 362 pp. (Sirenians: pp. 1-66)
Ronald, K., L.J. Selley, and E.C. Amoroso
l978 Biological Synopsis of the Manatee. IDRC-TS l3 e. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. ll2 pp., bl. and wh. illus., 26 pls.
Savage, J.G., D.P. Domning, and J.G.M. Thewissen
1994 Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean Region. V. The Most Primitive Known Sirenian, Prorastomus sirenoides Owen, 1855. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 14, No. 3, September 1994, pp. 427-449.
Scheffer, V.B.
l976 A Natural History of Marine Mammals. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. l57 pp., 46 figs.
Sokolov, V.E. (Editor)
1986 The Manatee. Morphological Adaptations. Nauka, Moscow. 405 pp. (In Russian)
Timm, R.M., L. Albuja, and L. Clauson
1986 Ecology, Distribution, Harvest, and Conservation of the Amazonian Manatee Trichechus inunguis in Ecuador. Biotropica, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 150-156.)
Steller, G.W. (W.& J.E. Miller, trans.)
l899 The Beasts of the Sea. In D.S. Jordan, The Fur Seals and Fur-Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, l899, Part 3, Art. 8,pp. l79-2l8. (Only scientific observation of the Steller's Sea Cow prior to extinction. May be difficult to obtain.)
Whitfield, W.K. and S.L. Farrington
l975 An Annotated Bibliography of Sirenia. Florida Marine Research Publication No. 7. Florida Department of Natural Resources. 44 pp., 488 titles.
Whitmore, F.C. Jr. and L.M. Gard Jr.
l977 Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) of Late Pleistocene Age from Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geological Survey Professional Paper l036. l9 pp., 8 pls.
Wilson, D.E. and D. M. Reader (Editors)
1993 Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC 1,206 pp.


  • Allen, G.M.
    1942 (See Technical)
  • Arseniev, V.A. and V.A. Zemsky
    1986 Atlas of Marine Mammals. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 269 pp. (Sirenians: pp. 258-261)
  • Chapman, J.A. and G.A. Feldhamer (Editors)
    l982 Wild Mammals of North America. Biology, Management, and Economics. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London. ll47 pp. (Chapter 4l on the West Indian Manatee by Daniel K. Odell, pp. 828-837.)
  • Clark, M.G.
    l990 The Vanishing Manatee. Cobblehill Books, New York. 64 pp. (General descriptions of manatee biology and behavior, problems of scientists endevouring to protect manatees.)
  • Cousteau, J.Y.
    l973 The Ocean World of Jacques Cousteau. Mammals in the Sea. World Publishing Co., New York. l44 pp., color photographs.
  • Delaney, J., W. Hale, and R. Stone
    1985 Manatees. An Educator's Guide. Revised 3rd edition, 1992, by Nancy Guzik. Florida Audubon Society, Florida Department of Natural Resources, and Marine Mammal Commission. (Free 28 page booklet and four color poster, "Sirenians of the World," for teachers, elementary and junior high school age children. Includes additional sources of information, books for young readers and audio-visual aids. Available from the Florida Audubon Society/ Save the Manatee Club, 500 N. Maitland Ave., Maitland, FL 32751.)
  • Dietz, T.
    1992 The Call of the Siren: Manatees and Dugongs. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, Colorado. 196 pp. (Conservation efforts to save manatees in Florida.)
  • Dozier, T.A.
    l977 Whales & Other Sea Mammals. Wild, Wild World of Animals. Time-Life Films, New York. l28 pp., color photographs. (Sirenia, pp. 62-69; highly recommended popular book.)
  • Ford, C.
    l966 Where the Sea Breaks Its Back: the Epic Story of a Pioneer Naturalist and the Discovery of Alaska. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, and Toronto. 206 pp. (Steller's voyage in the Bering Sea.)
  • Grzimek, B. (Editor)
    l990 Grzimek's Encyclopedia Vol. 4, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York. (Chapter on the Sirenia, pp. 522-533.)
  • Haley, D. (Editor)
    l986 Marine Mammals of Eastern North Pacific and Arctic Waters. Revised 2nd ed. Pacific Search Press, Seattle, Washington. 295 pp., bl. and wh. and color photographs. (Chapters by scientists in the field on the biology and behavior of cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears. Updated text and expanded bibliography.)
  • MacDonald, D. D. (Editor)
    1984 The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Facts on File, New York. xxxv + 895 pp. (Sirenia: pp. 292-303)
  • National Geographic Society
    l979 Wild Animals of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. 406 pp.
    1981 Amazing Animals of the Sea. Marine National Geographic Society. 104 pp. (Text for young readers)
  • Nowak, R.
    1991 (See Technical)
  • O'Shea. T.
    1994 (See Periodicals)
  • Reynolds, J.E. III, and D.K. Odell.
    1991 (See Technical)
  • Scheffer, V.B.
    l976 (See Technical)
  • Sibbald, L.F.
    1990 Manatee (Remarkable Animal Series). Macmillan Children's Book Group, New York. 60 pp. (Elementary school ages)
  • Stejneger, L.
    l936 Georg Wilhelm Steller, The Pioneer of Alaskan Natural History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 623 pp., l illus., 29 pls. (Extinct Steller's Sea Cow)
  • Stonehouse, B.
    1985 Sea Mammals of the World. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, New York. 159 pp. (Sirenians: pp. 70-75)
  • Unterbrink, M.
    1984 Manatees: Gentle Giants in Peril. Great Outdoors Publishing Co., St. Petersburg, Florida. 47 pp. (Elementary grades and above. Covers last two decades of research and conservation efforts; manatee life history.)
  • Van Meter, V. B.
    1987 The West Indian Manatee in Florida. 3rd edition. Florida Power and Light Company. Miami. 29 pp. (Brief review of physiology, reproduction, evolution, habitat, distribution, population estimates, behavior, local protection and conservation efforts, and mortality.)
  • Wright, C.W.
    1986 Hello, I am a Manatee. Primate Publications, San Francisco. 14 pp. (For early elementary grades)
  • Zeiller, Warren
    1992 Introducing the Manatee. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. 151 pp. (Manatee program at Sea World in Florida.)
  • Zoehfeld, K.W.
    1994 Manatee Winter. Smithsonian Oceanic Collection. Trudy Management Corporation and Smithsonian Institution, Norwalk, Connecticut. 30 pp. (Also available with a readalong audiocassette tape and realistic stuffed toy.)


Numerous articles on the Dugong and Manatee have appeared in popular magazines such as the National Geographic, Natural History, Audubon, International Wildlife, National Wildlife, Sea Frontiers, Oceans and Smithsonian. These publications often provide information on recent events and contain photographs and diagrams suitable for classroom use.

To locate, consult the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, available in most school and public libraries. This index lists by subject and author articles that have appeared in many American magazines. The following are some selected references in that category.

  • Anderson, P.
    l980 "On Being a Marine Mammalian Grazer." The Biologist,Vol. 6l, No. 4, l980, pp. ll3-l44.
  • Campbell, H.W. and J. Powell
    l976 "Endangered Species: The Florida Manatee." Florida Naturalist, Vol. 49, No. 2, April l976, pp. l5-20.
  • Carr, A.
    l976 "Operation Mermaid." International Wildlife, Vol. 6, No. 2, March-April l976, pp. l2-l7.
  • Domning, D.P.
    l98l "Manatees of the Amazon." Sea Frontiers, Vol. 27, No. l, January-February l98l, pp. l8-23.
    1983 "Marching Teeth of the Manatee." Natural History, Vol.92, No. 5, May 1983, pp. 8-11. (Dental adaptation and tooth replacement.)
    1987 "Sea Cow Family Reunion." Natural History, Vol. 96, No.4, April 1987, pp. 64-71.
    1994 "West Indian Tuskers." Natural History, Vol. 103, No. 4, April 1994, pp. 72-73.
  • Douglas, S.
    l982 "To Save a Vanishing Floridian." Oceans, Vol. l5, No. 6, November December l982, pp. 8-l5.
  • Goodwin, G.G.
    l946 "The End of the Great Northern Sea Cow." Natural History, Vol. 55, No. 2, February l946, pp. 56-6l.
  • Haley, D.
    l978 "Saga of Steller's Sea Cow." Natural History, Vol. 87, No. 9, November l978, pp. 9-l7.
  • Hall, Alice
    1984 "Man and Manatee: Can We Live Together?" National Geographic, Vol. 166, No. 3, pp. 400-413.
  • Harry, R.R.
    l956 "Eugenie the Dugong Mermaid." Pacific Discovery, Vol. 9, No. l, January-February l956, pp. 2l-27.
  • Hartman, D.S.
    l969 "Florida's Manatees, Mermaids in Peril." National Geographic, Vol. l36, No. 3, September l969, pp. 342-353.
  • Heinsohn, George
    1986 "Rare and Endangered: World's Only Strictly Marine Sea Cow Threatened." Australian Natural History, Vol. 21, No. 12, pp. 530-531. (Dugong)
  • Heinsohn, G.E. and H. Marsh
    l977 "Sirens of Tropical Australia." Australian Natural History, Vol. l9, No. 4, October-December l977, pp. l06- lll.
  • Heinsohn, G.E., H. Marsh, and P.K. Anderson
    l979 "Australian Dugong." Oceans, Vol. l2, No. 3, May-June l979, pp. 48-52.
  • Lovisek, J.
    l977 "Man and Manatee." Wildlife, Vol. l9, No. 2, February l977, pp. 62-64.
  • Marsh, H.
    1991 "Our Tropical Siren." Australian Geographic, No. 21, January/March 1991, pp. 42-57.
  • McNally, Robert
    1984 "The Short, Unhappy Saga of Steller's Sea Cow." Sea Frontiers, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-June 1984, pp. 168-172.
  • Moore, J.
    l96l "Sailors' Siren." Natural History, Vol. 70, No. l, January l96l, pp. 54-55.
  • Nietschmann, B. and J. Nietschmann
    l98l "Good Dugong, Bad Dugong; Bad Turtle, Good Turtle." Natural History, Vol. 90, No. 5, May l98l, pp. 55-63.
  • O'Shea, T.J.
    1994 "Manatees." Scientific American, Vol. 271, No. 1, July 1994, pp. 66-72.
  • O'Shea, T.J., and C.A. Salisbury
    1991 "Belize-A Last Stronghold for Manatees in the Caribbean." Oryx, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 156-164.
  • Reynolds, J.E.
    l976 "The Florida Manatee: Myth vs. Truth." Sea Frontiers, Vol. 22, No. 4, July l976, pp. 209-2l4.
    l979 "The Semisocial Manatee." Natural History, Vol. 88, No. 2, February l979, pp. 44-53.
  • Scheffer, V.B.
    l973 "The Last Days of the Sea Cow." Smithsonian, Vol. 3, No. l0, January l973, pp. 64-67.
  • Severin, K.
    l955 "Grazers of the Sea." Natural History, Vol. 64, No. 3, March l955, pp. l47-l49.
  • Turner, R. and C. Buckingham
    1993 "Navy is Enlisted in Plan to Protect Manatees." Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, March-May 1993, pp. 1, 10-11.
  • Vallee, J.
    1994 "Manatees and Boats - A Collision Course." Florida Naturalist, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 15-17.
  • Vietmeyer, N.
    l974 "The Endangered but Useful Manatee." Smithsonian, Vol.5, No. 9, December l974, pp. 60-64.
  • White, Jesse R.
    1984 "Born Captive, Released in the Wild." Sea Frontiers, Vol. 30, No. 6, Nov-Dec. 1984, pp. 369-374. (Manatee births at the Miami Seaquarium and release of two captive bred manatees; color photographs of manatee birth.)


Biological Abstracts, a semimonthly publication, abstracts articles from nearly all the major technical biological journals. Listings are by subject, author, key word, and systematic heading.

The Florida Audubon Society, 1101 Audubon Way, Maitland, FL 32751, produces educational materials, slide shows and films and coordinates with other conservation groups involved in manatee protection.

Journal of Mammalogy, issued quarterly by the American Society of Mammalogists, publishes technical studies on all aspects ofthe biology and behavior of mammals. The Society also issues Special Publications( book-length monographs), Mammalian Species (summaries of the biology of individual species). Correspondence should be directed to the Secretary of the American Society of Mammalogists; current address provided in recent issues of the Journal of Mammalogy.

Marine Mammal Commission, l625 I St. NW, Washington, DC 20006 is an independent Federal agency that provides annual reports and copies of pertinent articles describing current research and the status of marine mammals. A list of all Marine Mammal Contract Reports is available directly from the Commission.

Marine Mammal Science, a quarterly journal published by the Society for Marine Mammalogy, an international organization of marine mammalogists, is devoted to authoritative, technical papers on all aspects of marine mammal biology. It includes book reviews and letters with scientific commentary on issues affecting marine mammals or marine mammal science. For subscription information write to the Dr. K.J. Frost, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Rd., Fairbanks, Alaska 99701.

Save the Manatee Club, an organization established to promote public awareness and education about the endangered manatee, publishes Save the Manatee News, a newsletter issued about 4 times a year with reports on recent manatee research and conservation. It distributes booklets and leaflets on the natural history of the manatee, provides guidelines for protecting the manatee and reports on educator workshops and free in-service classes.For information and materials, write to Save the Manatee Club, 500 N. Maitland Ave., Maitland, Florida 32751.

Sea World of Florida, 7007 Sea World Drive, Orlando, Florida 32809. Oceanarium where captive manatees can be seen. Conducts rehabilitation on sick and injured manatees, necropsies on carcasses taken through the manatee salvage program, and provides public educational programs on marine mammals.

Sirenews, newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group, edited by Daryl P. Domning, specializes in Sirenian related news: biology, conservation and native concerns, anecdotal observations and new techniques, literature citations, abstracts and reviews, and letters. Distribution is limited to professionals. Copies of the newsletter may be examined in the Kellogg Library, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. 20560.

Wildlife Review is published quarterly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. It abstracts the entire wildlife literature. The Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior also publishes the Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. This bulletin is distributed only to federal and state agencies and official contacts; however, reprints are available by subscribing to Endangered Species Update, School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115. One page fact sheets on the West Indian Manatee are also available for school children from the Office of Endangered Species.

Zoological Record, an index published by the Zoological Society of London, specializes in titles of interest to taxonomists but also lists articles on morphology, physiology, genetics, and ecology of specific animal groups; indexed by author, subject, systematics, and geographic area.


EPCOT CENTER, Orlando, Florida
HOMOSASSA SPRINGS STATE WILDLIFE PARK, P.O. Box 189, Homosassa Springs, Florida 32647-0189
LOWRY PARK ZOO, 7530 N. Blvd., Tampa, Florida 33604
MIAMI SEAQUARIUM, 4400 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Florida 33149
SEA WORLD OF FLORIDA, 7007 Sea World Drive, Orlando, Florida 32809

Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Vertebrate Zoology,
National Museum of Natural History, in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services, Smithsonian Institution

V-Z 13
Spring 1995


Smithsonian Information
202.633.1000 (voice)


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