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Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses

The Behavior, Physiology, and Anatomy of Lactation in the Pinnipedia. In Hugh H. Genoways, (Editor), Current Mammalogy, Vol. 1, pp. 175-245. Plenum Publishing.
Oftedal, O.T., D.J. Boness, and R.A. Tedman
Ognev, S.I.
Mammals of the U.S.S.R. and Adjacent Countries. Vol. III. Carnivora. Fissipedia and Pinnipedia. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. 641 pp.
Osborne, R., J. Calambokidis, and E. M. Dorsey
(See Popular)
Peterson, R.L.
The Mammals of Eastern Canada. Oxford University Press, Toronto. 465 pp. (Section on Pinnipeds, pp. 288-311; includes walruses, harbour, ringed, harp, bearded, gray, and hooded seals.)
Peterson, R.S. and G.A. Bartholomew
The Natural History and Behavior of the California Sea Lion. Special Publication No. 1, American Society of Mammalogists. 79 pp.
Pike, G.C. and I.B. MacAskie
Marine Mammals of British Columbia. Bulletin 171, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 54 pp.
Ray, G.C., J.A. Dobbin, and R.V. Salm
Strategies for Protecting Marine Mammal Habitats. Oceanus, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 55-67. (Studies of Pacific walrus of Bering and Chukchi Seas.)
Reeves, R.R.
Atlantic Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus): A Literature Survey and Status Report. Wildlife Research Report No. 10, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 77 pp. (Range, biology, ecology, conservation, and research needs.)
Reeves, R.R., B.S. Stewart, and S. Leatherwood
The Sierra Club Handbook of Seals and Sirenians. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. 359 pp. (Wide range of information: history, various relationships, comparison of different species. Part II: 33 species accounts with an extensive bibliography; includes the walrus.)
Reijnders, P.J.H. and IUCN/SSC Seal Specialist Group (Compilers)
Seals, Fur Seals, Sea Lions and Walruses. An Action Plan for their Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland; Cambridge, UK. 88 pp. Available from IUCN Publication Service Unit.
Renouf, D. (Editor)
Behavior of Pinnipeds. Chapman and Hall, New York. 410 pp. (Contributed papers on all aspects of behavior; reviews mating, communication, foraging and sensory reception.)
Repenning, C.A. and R.H. Tedford
Otarioid Seals of the Neogene: Classification, Historical Zoogeography, and Temporal Correlation of the Sea Lions and Walruses from the North Pacific Region, Geological Survey Professional Paper 992. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Stock No. 024-001-02988-0. 93 pp.
Riedman, M.
The Pinnipeds: Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 439 pp. (Reviews adaptations to environment, mating strategies, nursing, and maternal behavior; 55 pp. bibliography.)
Ridgway, S.H. (Editor)
Mammals of the Sea; Biology and Medicine Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. 812 pp. (Biology of captive and free-ranging animals; includes chapters on behavior, evolution, and marine mammal parasites.)
Ridgway, S.H. and R.J. Harrison (Editors)
1981 to 1994
Handbook of Marine Mammals. 5 Vols. Vol. 1, The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals, and Sea Otter, 235 pp. Vol. 2, Seals, 359 pp. Academic Press, London, New York
Ronald, K. and A.W. Mansfield (Editors)
Biology of the Seal; Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Guelph, Canada, 14-17 August 1972. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Rapports et Proces- Verbaux des Reunions, Vol. 169, pp. 1-557.
Ronald, K. and R. Duguy (Editors)
The Mediterranean Monk Seal. Proceedings of the First International Conference, Rhodes, Greece, 2-5 May 1978. UNEP Technical Series, Vol. 1. Published for the United National Environmental Programme. Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York. 183 pp. (Papers on the status, distribution, ecology, and conservation of Mediterranean monk seal.
Les Phoques Moines- Monk Seal. Proceedings of the Second International Conference, La Rochelle, France, 5-6 October 1984. Annales de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de la Charente- Maritime, Supplement, December 1984. 120 pp.
Ronald, K. and J.L. Dougan
The Ice Lover. Biology of the Harp Seal (Phoca groenlandica). Science, Vol. 215, No. 4535, 19 February 1982, pp. 928-933.
Ronald, K., J. Selley, and P. Healey
Seals (Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae). In J. A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer (Editors), Wild Mammals of North America. Biology, Management, and Economics, pp. 769-827. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
Royal Commission of Seals and Sealing Industries in Canada
Seals and Sealing in Canada. 3 Vols: Vol. 1, 65 pp.; Vol. 2, 622 pp.; Vol. 3, 679 pp. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Ottawa.
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Ambio, Vol. IX, Number 3-4, 1980, pp. 111-193. (Issue devoted to ecological and
environmental problems in the Baltic Sea area; one article on Baltic seals and PCB pollution.)
Scheffer, V.B.
Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses. A Review of the Pinnipedia. Stanford University Press, California. 179 pp. (Systematic account; includes biology, evolution, zoogeography, and key to the genera.)
North American Fauna No. 64, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 206 pp.
Scheffer, V.B., C.H. Fiscus and E.I. Todd
History of Scientific Study and Management of the Alaskan Fur Seal Callorhinus ursinus, 1786-1964. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS SSRF-780, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Washington, DC 70 pp. (Traces evolution of zoological research on fur seals, ideas and techniques developed and changes in fur seal management and legislation.)
Seagars, D.L.
The Guadalupe Fur Seal: A Status Review. Administrative Report SW2-84-6, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Region, Terminal Island, California. 29 pp.
Sergeant, D.E.
Harp Seals, Man and Ice. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 114. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa. 153 pp. (Extensive bibliography.)
Shaughnessy, P.D. and G.J.B. Ross
Records of the Subantarctic Fur Seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) from South Africa with Notes on Its Biology and some Observations of Captive Mammals. Annals South African Museum, Vol. 82, No. 2, May 1980, pp. 71-89.
Siniff, D.B.
An Overview of the Ecology of Antarctic Seals. American Zoologist, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 143-152.
Siniff, D.B., I. Stirling, and L.L. Eberhardt
Problems in the Conservation of Polar Marine Mammals. In M.A. McWhinnie (Editor), Polar Research; to the Present and the Future, pp.161-174. AAAS Selected Symposia Series: 7, Westview Press, Washington, DC
Siniff, D.B., I. Stirling, J.L. Bengston, and R.A. Reichle
Social and Reproductive Behavior of Crabeater Seals (Lobodon carcinophagus) during Austral Spring. Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 57, pp.2243-2255.
Smith, T.G.
Population Dynamics of the Ringed Seal in the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Bulletin No. 181, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 55 pp.
The Ringed Seal, Phoca hispida, of the Canadian Western Arctic. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 216. 81 pp. Canadian Government Centre, Ottawa, Canada K1A OS9.
Stanford Research Institute
Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving Mammals. Stanford Research Institute, Biological Sonar Laboratory, Menlo Park, California. 113 pp. (Papers on fur seals, harbor seals, and the Steller sea lion. Not easily available.)
Stewart, B.S. and P.K. Yochem
Pinnipeds of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. Conf. Sci. National Parks 4: 213. (Abstract only.) (Hubbs Marine Research Institute, 1700 S. Shores Rd., San Diego, CA 92109)
Stewart, B.S., and H.R. Huber
Mirounga angustirostris. Mammalian Species, 15 November 1993, No. 449, pp. 1-10. (Northern Elephant Seal)
Summers, C.F., and S.R. Witthames
The Value of Tagging as a Marking Technique for Seals. In B. Stonehouse (Editor), Animal Markings: Recognition Marking of Animals in Research; Symposium, London, England, July 12-14, 1977, pp. 63-70. MacMillan Press Ltd., London and New York.
Testa, J.W.
Population Dynamics of Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Ecol. Monograph, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 149-165.
Thomas, J.A., V. Pastukhov, R. Elsner, and E. Petrov
Phoca sibirica (Baikal Seal). Mammalian Species, No. 188, November 1982, pp. 1-6.
Thomas, J.A., R.A. Kastelein, and A. Ya. Supin
Marine Mammal Sensory Systems. Plenum Press, Nevada. 773 pp. (Research papers from a symposium, "Sensory Systems and Behavior of Aquatic Mammals," hosted by USSR Academy of Sciences 16-25 October 1991.)
Timoshenko, Y.K.
Effect of Ice and Meteorological Conditions on Several Representatives of True Seals. Soviet Journal of Ecology. (English Translation) Vol. 19, No. 3, May/June 1986, pp. 177-81
Trillmich, F., and K. Ono (Editors)
Pinnipeds and El Nino: Responses to Environmental Stress. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 293 pp.
U.S. Department of Commerce
The Story of the Pribilof Fur Seals. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC l3 pp. (History of sealing, physical characteristics, distribution, and reproduction of the northern fur seal.
Most Recent Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 Annual Report. National Marine Fisheries, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20235. (Comprehensive report published every 3 years with annual updates; reports current status of all pinnipeds (except walruses) and cetaceans. Describes research activities; includes bibliographies on each species.)
U.S. Department of the Interior
1974 +
Administration and Status Report of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, June 22, 1973 to June, 1974. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC (Series of annual status reports;includes review of walruses.)
Wilson, D.E., and D.M. Reeder (Editors)
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 1,206 pp. (Authoritative reference: updated checklist of mammals of the world. Order Carnivora, Family Odobenidae, Otariidae, and Phocidae by W.C. Wozencraft.)
Wyss, A.R.
The Walrus Auditory Region and the Monophyly of Pinnipeds. American Museum Novitates 2871, pp. 1-31.
Zapol, W.M.
(See Periodicals)
Zur Strassen, W.H.
The Fur Seal of Southern Africa. Howard Timmins, Cape Town. 71 pp., black and white photographs.

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