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Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses



Allen, G.M.
Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere with the Marine Species of All the Oceans.Special Publication No. ll, American Committee for International Conservation, Washington, DC. 620 pp. l972 reprint by Cooper Square, New York. (History of sealing and whaling; includes the characteristics, range, past and present populations of l9 species of pinnipeds.)
Allen, J.A.
History of North American Pinnipeds: a Monograph of the Walruses, Sea-Lions, Sea-Bears and Seals of North America. Miscellaneous Pub. No. l2 of the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. 785 pp. l974 reprint by Arno Press, New York. (A classic, outdated but not as yet supplanted.)
Andersen, H.T. (Editor)
The Biology of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, New York.
511 pp. (A technical review of many aspects of marine mammal biology.)
Arseniev, V.A.
Atlas of Marine Mammals. Expanded version of 1980 Russian language edition of Atlas of Marine Mammals of U.S.S.R. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune, New Jersey. 269 pp. (Includes all living species of seals; no longer regional.)
Arsen'ev, V.A. and K.I. Panin (Editors)
Pinnipeds of the North Pacific. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. 274 pp. (Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151. No. TT-70-54020.)
Augee, M. (Editor)
Marine Mammals of Australasia. Proceedings of the Australian Marine Mammal Symposium convened by the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, August 24-26, 1987 Sydney, Australia. 128 pp. (Includes papers on pinnipeds of Australasia, management of seal populations, captive management of fur seals and sea-lions) Available from Pacific Whale Foundation Press, 101 North Kihei Road, Kihei, Maui, HI 96753)
Baker, R.C., F. Wilke, and C.H. Baltzo
The Northern Fur Seal. Circular 336, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 21 pp. (General account of the history, distribution, biology, and management of the northern fur seal.)
Banfield, A.W.F.
The Mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 438 pp. (Includes species accounts of various pinnipeds.)
Barnes, L.G., D.P. Domning, and C.E. Ray
Status of Studies on Fossil Marine Mammals. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 15-53. (Includes a section on fossil pinnipeds.)
Beddington, J.R. and H.A. Williams
The Status and Management of the Harp Seal in the North-west Atlantic. A review and evaluation. Marine Mammal Commission Report, Contract MM1301062-1. Washington, DC. 127 pp. (Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151. No. PB80-206 105.)
Beddington, J.R., R.J.H. Beverton, and D.M. Lavigne (Editors)
Marine Mammals and Fisheries. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London and Winchester, Massachusetts. 354 pp. (Authoritative accounts by marine biologists. Includes management problems, case studies of interactions, and problems of estimating food consumption.)
Berta, A., C.E. Ray, and A R Wyss
Skeleton of the Oldest Known Pinniped, Enaliarctos mealsi. Science, 7 April 1989, Vol. 244, pp. 60-62


Bertram, G.C.L.
The Biology of the Weddell and Crabeater Seals; with a Study of the Comparative Behavior of the Pinnipedia. British Graham Land Expedition, 1934-37, Scientific Reports, Vol. 1, No. 1, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), 139 pp., illus.
Bigg, M.A.
The Harbour Seal in British Columbia. Bulletin 172, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 33 pp. (Topics include age determination, reproductive biology, and growth.)
Status of the Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 102, No. 2, pp. 315-336.
Bonner, W.N.
The Fur Seal of South Georgia. British Antarctic Survey, Scientific Reports No. 56, 81 pp., 6 plates.
The Stocks of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) and Common Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Great Britain; a Review of Present Knowledge. Natural Environment Research Council Publication Series C, No. 16, 16 pp. (Available from NERCP, Alhambra House, 27/33 Charing Cross Rd., London WC2H OAX)
Seals and Man: A Study of Interactions. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington. 170 pp. (Relationships of man and seals, fisheries, aspects of seal biology, social structure, breeding and diet.)
The Natural History of Seals. Facts on File, New York. 196 pp. (Handy reference: focus on true seals, interactions with humans, prospects for survival. Covers feeding, diving, reproduction, growth, evolution.)
Boulva, J., and I.A. McLaren
Biology of the Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina, in Eastern Canada. Bulletin 200, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 24 pp. (Includes distribution, behavior, and population dynamics.)
Boyd, I.L. (Editor)
Marine Mammals: Advances in Behavioural and Population Biology. The Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Zoological Society of London on 9th and 10th April 1992. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 404 pp. (Main focus on pinniped genetic ecology, foraging, physiology and bioenergetics.)
Brown, S.G., R.L. Brownell, A.W. Erickson, et al
Antarctic Mammals. Antarctic Map Folio Series, Folio 18, American Geographical Society, New York. 19 pp. (Includes an authoritative account of seals.)
Burns, J.J.
The Pacific Bearded Seal. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau. 66 pp. (Biology, seasonal movements, and harvest characteristics.)
Burns, J.J., and A. Gavin
Recent Records of Hooded Seals, Cystophora cristata Erxleben, from the Western Beaufort Sea. Arctic, Vol. 33, No. 2, June l980, pp. 326-329. (Between l970 and l975.)
Burt, W.H. (Editor)
Antarctic Pinnipedia. Antarctic Research Series, Vol. l8, American Geophysical Union of the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. 226 pp. (Original studies on the biology of Antarctic seals.)
Busch, B.C.
The War Against the Seals: A History of the North American Seal Fishery. McGill-Queen's University Press, Kingston and Montreal. 374 pp. (Traces the history of commercial sealing, techniques of seal hunters, population fluctuations, emergence of large shipping companies.)
Campbell, R.R.
Status of the Hooded Seal, Cystophora cristata, in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist, Vol. 101, No. 2, pp. 253-265.
Status of the Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris, in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist, Vol. 101, No. 2, p. 266.
Chapskii, K.K., and V.E. Sokolov (Editors)
Morphology and Ecology of Marine Mammals: Seals,Dolphins, Porpoises. J.Wiley and Sons, New York. 232 pp.
Croxall, J.P.
The Status and Conservation of Antarctic Seals and Seabirds: A Review. Environment International., Vol. 13, No.1, pp. 55-70. [ British Antarctic Survey, NERC, Cambridge CB3 OET, UK]
Croxall, J.P., and R.L. Gentry (Editors)
Status, Biology, and Ecology of Fur Seals. Proceeding of an International Symposium and Workshop Cambridge, England 23-27 April 1984. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 51. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries. 212 pp. Available from Scientific Pubications Office, B1NC15708, Seattle, Washington 98115. (Includes species summaries and papers on breeding, behavior, diving.)
Discovery Committee, Colonial Office on behalf of the Dependencies of the Falkland Islands Discovery Reports. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, England.
Vol. I: The Natural History of the Elephant Seal. With Notes on Other Seals Found at South Georgia by L.H. Matthews. pp. 233-256.
Vol. VIII: The Southern Sea Lion Otaria byronia (De Blainville) by J.E. Hamilton. pp. 269-318.
Vol. XIX: A Second Report on the Southern Sea Lion Otaria byronia (De Blainville) by J.E. Hamilton.pp. 121-164.
Vol. XVIII: The Leopard Seal Hydrurga leptonyx (De Blainville) by J.E. Hamilton. pp. 239-264.
Eberhardt, L.L., D.G. Chapman, and J.R. Gilbert
A Review of Marine Mammal Census Methods. Wildlife Monograph No. 63, Wildlife Society, Washington, DC 46 pp.
The Seal-Islands of Alaska. U.S. Government Printing Office. Published as part of the 10th Census of the U.S. 1976 reprint by Limestone Press, New York. 176 pp.
Fay, F.H.
Industrial Utilization of Marine Mammals. Proceedings of the 29th Alaska Science Conference, August 1979, pp. 75-79. Alaska Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Sea Grant Report 79-6.
Ecology and Biology of the Pacific Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger. North American Fauna 74. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 279 pp.
Odobenus rosmarus. Mammalian Species, No. 238, May 1985, pp. 1-7. (Walrus)
Fay, F.H., and B.P. Kelly
Mass Natural Mortality of Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) at St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Autumn 1978. Arctic, Vol. 33, No. 2, June 1980, pp. 226-245. (Investigation of an unusual walrus haul-out and mortality; includes pathological studies.)
Fay, F.H., and G.A. Fedoseev (Editors)
Soviet-American Cooperative Research on Marine Mammals. Volume 1- Pinnipeds. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 12. 104 pp. ( 12 papers on projects treating ringed, ribbon, bearded, harbor, and spotted seals, walrus, and sea otters) Available from Publications Services Branch (E/A113), National Envionmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce, 3300 Whitehaven St., Washington, DC 20235.
Fay, F.H., B.P. Kelly, and B. Fay (Editors)
The Ecology and Management of Walrus Populations: Report of an International Workshop, 26-30 March 1990, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Prepared for the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC 186 pp. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield VA. No. PB 91-100479.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Mammals in the Seas. Vol. II. Pinniped Species Summaries and Report on Sirenians. FAO Fisheries Series No. 5, Rome. 153 pp. (Report of the Advisory Committee on Marine Resources, Research Working Party on Marine Mammals of the Bergen 1976 meeting.)
Mammals in the Seas. Vol. IV. FAO Fisheries Series No. 5. Small Cetaceans, Seals, Sirenians, and Otters. Rome. 531 pp. ( FAO Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research Working Party on Marine Mammals. Selected Papers of the Scientific Consultation on the Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals and Their Environment held in Bergen, Norway in 1976. Includes information on seal populations, pinniped bioenergetics, monk seals, seals of U.K., U.S.S.R., Australia, S.Africa & Namibia, Antarctic, South American sea lion and fur seal, harp seal California sea lion, northern Steller sea lion, harbour seals.)
Gentry, R.L.
(See Periodicals)
Gentry, R.L. and G.L. Kooyman (Editors)
Maternal Strategies on Land and at Sea Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 292 pp.
Geraci, J.R., and D.St. Aubin
Offshore Petroleum Resource Development and Marine Mammals: A Review and Research Recommendations. Marine Fisheries Review, Vol. 42, No. 11, November 1980, pp. 1-12.
Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks. Academic Press, New York. 282 pp. (Pinnipeds: chapters 3,4.)
Geraci, J.R. and V.J. Lounsbury
Marine Mammals Ashore. A Field Guide for Stranding. Sea Grant College Program, Texas A&M University, Galveston, Texas. 305 pp. (Includes bibliographic references and indexes.)
Gordon, K.R.
Locomotor Behavior of the Walrus (Odobenus). Journal of Zoology, London, Vol. 195, pp. 349-367.
Gray, J.E.
Catalogue of Seals and Whales in the British Museum. 2nd edition. British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Dept. of Zool., London. 402 pp. (Supplement: Pinnipedia, 1871, pp. 1-33.)
Hand-List of Seals, Morses, Sea-Lions and Sea-Bears in the British Museum. British Museum (Nat. Hist.) London. 43 pp., 30 plates.
Haley, D. (Editor)
Marine Mammals of Eastern North Pacific and Arctic Waters. Revised 2nd edition. Pacific Search Press, Seattle, Washington. 256 pp. (Chapters by biologists on 9 species of pinnipeds. Updated text and revised bibliography.)
Harrison, R.J. (Editor)
Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals. 3 Vols. plus. on Academic Press, London, New York. (Technical continuing series.)
Harrison, R.J., R.C. Hubbard, R.S. Peterson, C.E. Rice, and R.J. Schusterman (Editors)
The Behavior and Physiology of Pinnipeds. Appleton Century Crofts, New York. 411 pp.
Harrison, R.J. and S.H. Ridgway
Deep Diving in Mammals. Meadowfield Press, Durham, England. 51 pp. (Mainly on seals and dolphins.)
Harrison, R.J. and J.E. King
Marine Mammals. 2nd edition. Hutchinson & Co., London. 192 pp. (Characteristics of whales, dolphins, seals, manatees.)
Hewer, J.R.
.British Seals Taplinger, New York. 256 pp. (Authoritative but readable account of the biology of the grey seal and harbour seal in Britain.)
Hickling, G.
Grey Seals and the Farne Islands. Routledge and Paul, London. 180 pp.
Hickling, G. and P. Hawkey
Grey Seals at the Farne Islands and the Isle of May: 1979 and 1980. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria the Hancock Museum Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4PT, Vol. 47, September 1981, pp. 2-16. (Spring culling, a means of controlling grey seal populations.)
Hofman, R.J. and W.N. Bonner
Conservation and Protection of Marine Mammals: Past, Present and Future. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, April 1985, pp. 109-127.
Howell, A.B.
Aquatic Mammals. Their Adaptations to Life in the Water. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. 1970 reprint by Dover Press. 338 pp.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
Seals: Proceedings of a Working Meeting of Seal Specialists on Threatened and Depleted Seals of the World, 18-19 August 1972, Guelph, Ontario. IUCN Publications New Series, Supplementary Paper No.39. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, Switzerland. 176 pp.
Katona, S.K., V. Rough, and D.T. Richardson
A Field Guide to Whales, Porpoises and Seals from Cape Cod to Newfoundland. Fourth edition revised. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 316 pp.
Kenyon, K.W.
The Hawaiian Monk Seal: An Endangered Marine Mammal. Water Spectrum, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 1-6.
King, J.E.
The Otariid Seals of the Pacific Coast of America. Bulletin of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Zoology, Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 18-337.
The Monk Seals (genus Monachus). Bulletin of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Zoology, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 201-256.
Seals of the World. 2nd edition. British Museum and Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 240 pp. (Comprehensive account: first part, species accounts; second part, pinniped biology.)
Kooyman, G.L.
Weddell Seal, Consummate Diver. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 176 pp. (Biology and behavior of Weddell seal with emphasis on diving physiology and acoustical biology.)
Kovacs, K.M. and D.M. Lavigne
Cystophora cristata. Mammalian Species, No. 258, June 1985, pp. 1-9. (Hooded Seal)
Lavigne, D.M. and K.M. Kovacs
Harps & Hoods University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario. 200 pp. (Subjects cover distribution, migration, life cycles, adaptations for sea life and history of the northwest Atlantic seal hunt.)
Laws, R.M.
1953 to 1956
The Elephant Seal. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey Scientific Reports Nos. 8, 13, 15. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Laws, R.M. (Editor)
Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Group of Specialists on Seals. Cambridge University Press, New York. 390 pp. (Identification of species, population estimates, capture and marking techniques, behaviour.)
Le Boeuf, B.J., K. Kenyon, and B. Villa-Ramirez
The Caribbean Monk Seal is Extinct. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 70-72.
Le Boeuf, B.J., D.P. Costa, A.C. Huntley, and S.D. Feldkamp
Continuous Deep Diving in Female Northern Elephant Seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 66, No. 2, February 1988, pp.446-458.
Le Boeuf, B.J., and R.M. Laws (Editors)
Elephant Seals: Population, Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. University of California Press, Berkeley. 414 pp.
Ling, J.K.
Neophoca cinerea. Mammalian Species, 5 June 1992, No. 392, pp. 1-7. (Australian Sea Lion)
Ling, J.K. and M.M. Bryden
Mirounga leonina. Mammalian Species, 5 June 1992, No. 391, pp. 1-8. (Southern Elephant Seal)
Ling, J.K. and M.M. Bryden (Editors)
Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes. South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 132 pp. (Includes 5 chapters on seals: Southern elephant seal, Weddell seal and South African and Australian fur seal.)
Loughlin, T.R., M.A. Perez, and R.L. Merrick
Eumetopias jubatus. Mammalian Species, No. 283, February 1987, pp. 1-7. (Steller sea lion.)
Lowry, LF., K.J. Frost, and J.J. Burns
Feeding of Bearded Seals in the Bering and Chukchi Seas and Trophic Interaction with Pacific Walruses. Arctic, Vol. 33, No. 2, June 1980, pp. 330-342. (Feeding habits, past and present.)
Mammalian Species
No. 1, Irregular. American Society of Mammalogists. on (Brief reviews of species including the Weddell seal and Galapagos fur seal. May be ordered from Dr. Duane Smith, Secretary-Treasurer, Department of Zoology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602.)
Mansfield, A.W.
The Biology of the Atlantic Walrus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus (Linnaeus) in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Manuscript Report Series (Biological) No. 653, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 146 pp.
Seals of Arctic and Eastern Canada. 2nd edition revised. Bulletin 137, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 35 pp.
Marlow, B.J.
The Comparative Behavior of the Australasian SeaLions Neophoca cinerea and Phocarctos hookeri (Pinnipedia: Otariidae). Mammalia, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 159-230.
Miller, E.H.
Walrus Ethology II. Herd Structure and Activity Budgets of Summering Males Odobenus rosmarus. Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp.0704-0715. (Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. No. PB267 003/AS.)
Mohr, E.
Die Robben der Europaischen Gewasser. Monographien der Wildsaugetiere. Verlag Dr. Paul Schops, Frankfurt, Main. 283 pp., 40 plates.
National Marine Fisheries Service
Recovery Plan for the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Prepared by the Steller Sea Lion Recovery Team for NMFS, Silver Spring, Maryland. 92 pp.
National Marine Mammal Laboratory
A Conservation Plan for Northern Fur Seals, Callorhinus ursinus. National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Centre. NMFS, NOAA. 49 pp.
Nowak, R.
Walker's Mammals of the World. 5th edition. 2 Vols. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore and London (Vol. II, Pinnipedia, pp. 1220-1274: brief descriptions and natural history of known genera.)

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