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Chinese Painting and Portraiture


There has been a large number of publications on Chinese painting and painters. This list includes works of a more general nature, such as surveys, theories, histories of various periods, monographs on one individual painter who was representative of a school or of a period and was profoundly influential, and translations of some important texts. Many of monographs on a single painter are not included. A few works on Chinese woodblock prints are also included here.

Acker, William Reynolds Beal. Some T'ang and pre-T'ang Texts on Chinese Painting. Reprint ed. Westport, CT: Hyperion Press, 1979, 1954-1974.

Originally published in Leiden, The Netherlands, by Brill in 1954-1974, in Sinica Leidensia, no. 8 and 12, part 1, it contains translation and annotations of Zhang Yanyuan's (9th cent.)Lidai minghuaji, chapter 4-10., a significant work for studying Tang and pre-Tang painting.

Artists and Patrons: Some Social and Economic Aspects of Chinese Painting, edited by Chu-tsing Li. Kansas City: University of Kansas, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1989.

As the result of the Workshop on Chinese Painting at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in 1980, in conjunction with the exhibition, Eight Dynasties of Chinese Painting, this work contains 16 papers and a special lecture by James Cahill, covering the social and economical aspects of Chinese painting from the Song to the late Qing dynasties, mainly on court patronage and patronage in various cities. Papers of the last session on Chinese art collecting are not included.

Barnhart, Richard M. Peach Blossom Spring: Garden and Flowers in Chinese Paintings. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.

A catalog of an exhibition of flower-and bird and garden paintings which direct one's attention to nature and its detail. The title originates from the fifth-century poet Tao Jian who believed that the ideal paradise on earth could exist at Peach Blossom Spring.

_____. Along the Border of Heaven: Sung and Yüan Painting from the C. C. Wang Family Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.

Catalog of the private collection of C. C. Wang, one of the best known collectors of Chinese art, living in New York.

_____. Painters of the Great Ming: The Imperial Court and the Zhe School. Dallas: The Dallas Museum of Art, 1993.

A catalog of an exhibition at the Met and Dallas Museum of Art (its first major Asian art exhibition) in 1993, investigating the work of the professional painters of the Ming dynasty who came from the area of Zhejiang and whose works created a regional style, called the Zhe School.

_____. The Jade Studio: Masterpieces of Ming and Qing Painting and Calligraphy from the Wong Nan-p'ing Collection. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Catalog and exhibition of a private collection formed in the 2nd half of the 20th century, of Ming and Qing painting and calligraphy, illustrating the canon of orthodox painting in China between 1450 and 1850.

_____, Wen C. Fong and Maxwell K. Hearn. Mandate of Heaven: Emperors and Artists in China: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Zurich: Museum Rietberg, 1996.

Catalog of an exhibition held at Rietberg Museum in 1996 of 42 of the finest pieces from the Metropolitan Museum, focusing on imperial patronage (with paintings formerly in imperial collections) as well as literati paintings.

_____ et al. Three Thousand Years of Chinese Painting. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

Hailed as a historical publishing event, the book was the first volume of a 75-book series called The Culture & Civilization of China, a joint publishing venture of Yale and a Chinese publishing group. Written by six scholars, the book serves as a textbook, tracing the history of Chinese painting from the Neolithic flower and animal designs painted on pottery, rocks and murals to the 20th century, highlighting painting traditions, trends, major artists and regions where Chinese painting flourished.

Bickford, Maggie. Ink Plum: The Making of a Chinese Scholar-painting Genre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Based on her 1988 dissertation, the work discusses the origins and evolution of a new painting genre within the cultural context of flowering plum that had become a definitive stylistic and iconographic form by the 14th century.

Brinker, Helmut. Zen in the Art of Painting [Zen in der Kunst des Malens. English] New York: Arkana, 1987.

Discusses Zen painting of China and Japan with a bibliography.

Brown, Claudia & Ju-hsi Chou. Transcending Turmoil: Painting at the Close of China's Empire, 1796-1911. Phoenix: Phoenix Art Museum, 1992.

An exhibition catalog, the work provides a systematic overview of the 19th-century painting in China, a period which had not been well researched, with discussions on the fusion of pictorial, calligraphic and seal-carving aesthetics.

Bush, Susan. The Chinese Literati on Painting: Su Shih (1037-1101) to Tung Ch'i-ch'ang (1555-1636). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Examines scholarly writings of different periods of art, from Northern Song (960-1127) with the views of the literati and their influence, the Yüan dynasty with the literati's art theory, to the Ming dynasty.

_____ and Hsio-yen Shih, compiled and edited. Early Chinese Texts on Painting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

A useful sourcebook superseding Siren's Chinese on the Art of Painting in accuracy. The work is to Ahelp western readers understand the cultural context in which the Chinese themselves have understood their painting.@

Cahill, James. Chinese Painting. Reprint ed. New York: Rizzoli, 1985, 1960.

By the former curator at the Freer Gallery of Art and professor at the University of California at Berkeley, the book gives a historic survey of Chinese painting.

_____. Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368. New York: Weatherhill, 1976.

Together with the following two titles, this work is the first of the series, providing a historical survey of one particular period.

_____. Parting at the shore: Chinese painting of the early and middle Ming dynasty, 1368-1580. New York: Weatherhill, 1978.

Second of the above-mentioned series.

_____. The Distant Mountains: Chinese Painting of the Late Ming Dynasty, 1570-1644. New York: Weatherhill, 1982.

Third of the above-mentioned series. The author's 1971 work entitled Restless Landscape also discusses late Ming painting.

_____. An Index of Early Chinese Painters and Paintings: T'ang, Sung, and Yüan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Incorporating the work of Osvald Siren and Ellen Johnston Laing, the work provides an index of all Chinese paintings of those periods, known to the author. Arranged by period, biographical information is given for each artist and lists of works grouped by collection or publication. Index for the later dynasties (Ming and Qing) was planned but not published.

_____. The Compelling Image: Nature and Style in Seventeenth-century Chinese Painting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.

The work covers one century, focusing on Anature and style@ of painting as a matter of personal expression, modes of seeing, and formal choices.

_____. Three Alternative Histories of Chinese Painting. Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art, 1988.

Growing out of a distinguished lecture series, the work looks at Chinese painting chiefly of the Ming and Qing periods from three different perspectives: political themes and uses of painting, ideological and social implications of subject matter, and style.

_____. The Painter's Practice: How Artists Lived and Worked in Traditional China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

The work takes a socioeconomic approach, examining painting in the light of artist-patron relationships, workshop practices, market conditions and other practical constraints and incentives.

_____. The Lyric Journey: Poetic Painting in China and Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.

In addition to a discussion of the Edo-period Japanese painting, the work discusses poetic painting from the 12th-century Southern Song and 16th-17th century late Ming periods. The chapters were originally three Reischauer lectures in 1993.

The Century of Tung Ch'i-ch'ang, 1555-1636, edited by Wai-kam Ho, Judith G. Smith. Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1992.

Produced as the catalog of an exhibition organized by the Nelson-Atkins displaying 55 paintings, 19 calligraphic works, and 34 model writings in rubbings of Dong Qi-chang, the most important and influential Ming painter both in theory and in practice. The volumes are an invaluable reference tool of images, information, interpretation, and historiography for the study of scholar-amateur painting in the later Ming and early Qing. (It was the first Shimada, 1907-1994,  prize winner in 1993.) Proceedings of the Tung Ch'i-ch'ang International Symposium, published by the Nelson-Atkins Museum, Kansas City, in 1991, also edited by Wai-kam Ho, contains papers delivered at the symposium.

Ch'en, Pao-chen. The Goddess of the Lo River: a Study of Early Chinese Narrative Handscrolls. Ph.D. thesis Princeton University, 1987.

The study compares three Song period copies of a late 16th century composition illustrating the famous poem, Luoshenfu, the Lo River Goddess, by Cao Zhi, for their composition, iconography, style and calligraphy.

Chou, Ju-hsi. Elegant Brush: Chinese Painting under the Qianlong Emperor, 1735-1795. Phoenix: Phoenix Art Museum, 1985.

Catalog of an exhibition focusing on the Ming and Qing paintings and the Emperor Qianlong's art patronage.

_____. Heritage of the Brush. Phoenix: Phoenix Art Museum, 1989. & Scent of Ink: The Roy and Marilyn Papp Collection of Chinese Painting. Phoenix: Phoenix Art Museum, 1994. & Journeys on Paper and Silk: The Roy and Marilyn Papp Collection of Chinese Painting. Phoenix: Phoenix Art Museum, 1998.

Journeys on Paper and Silk is a companion volume to Heritage of the Brush and Scent of Ink. All three works feature the Papp collection of Chinese painting of the Ming and Qing dynasties, to document the museum's new acquisition.

Chãgoku Kaiga Sogo Zuroku ' Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Painting. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1982-1983.

5-volume Japanese publication has English preface, explanatory notes and table of contents. It lists Chinese paintings in American and Canadian, Southeast Asian and European, and Japanese collections, with index.

Chãgoku Kaiga Sogo Zuroku Zokuhen 'Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Painting. 2nd series, compiled by Toda Teisuke, Ogawa Hiromitsu. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1998-

So far two volumes have been published, listing American, Canadian, Asian and European collections.

Edwards, Richard. The World Around the Chinese Artist: Aspects of Realism in Chinese Painting. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1987.

Resulting from three lectures at the University of Michigan, three great painters are discussed (Xia Gui, Shen Zhou and Shitao) with one theme: the relationship between the artist and the world around the artist, between the physical reality of the world and the subjective vision of the artist.

Eight Dynasties of Chinese Painting: The Collections of the Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum, Kansas City, and the Cleveland Museum of Art, with essays by Wai-kam Ho ... [et al.] Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1980.

Catalog of a joint exhibition of two of the finest museums whose painting collections complement each other. The large scale exhibition held from Nov. 1980 to Mar. 1981 was the first such exhibition since 1960s.

Ellsworth, Robert Hatfield. Later Chinese Painting and Calligraphy, 1800-1950. New York: Random House, 1986.

3-volume catalog of the author's collection consisting chiefly of illustrations.

Farrer, Anne.>The Brush Dances & the Ink Sings': Chinese Paintings and Calligraphy from the British Museum. London: Hayward Gallery, 1990.

Catalog of an exhibition sponsored both by the British Museum and the Hayward Gallery, where David Hockney's A Day on the Grand Canal with the Emperor of China was also shown.

Flowering in the Shadows: Women in the History of Chinese and Japanese Painting, edited by Marsha Weidner. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.

However little known or rarely written about, women were active as artists in both China and Japan. The articles, brought together by the editor, complement the catalog of the exhibition Views from Jade Terrace: Chinese Women Artists, 1300-1912.

Fong, Wen ... [et al.] Images of the Mind: Selections from the Edward L. Elliott Family and John B. Elliott Collections of Chinese Calligraphy and Painting at the Art Museum, Princeton University. Princeton: Art Museum, Princeton University, 1984.

Exhibition catalog of a fine collection of Chinese painting and calligraphy mainly from the Ming and Qing dynasties.

_____. Beyond Representation: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy 8th-14th Century.  New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art ; New Haven: Yale University Pres, 1992.

A historical survey of early Chinese painting and calligraphy from the Tang and Song to the Yuan dynasty, based on a selection of masterpieces at the Metropolitan Museum, covering a range of themes, such as narrative representation, monumental landscape, literati painting, Song imperial art, Southern Song painting, Buddhist and Daoist themes, Yuan renaissance and literati painting.

_____ and James C. Y. Watt. Possessing the Past: Treasures from the National Palace Museum, Taipei. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and National Palace Museum, 1996.

Published on the occasion of one of the largest scale exhibitions of Chinese art with rarely seen masterpieces from the National Palace Museum. The 648-page catalog provides background information on the foundations of Chinese civilization and basic cultural features for dynasties from the Song to the Qing for cross-cultural understanding of Chinese art. The catalog of the exhibition is entitled Splendors of Imperial China: Treasures from the National Palace Museum, Taipei, by Maxwell K. Hearn. A symposium was held for the occasion and the papers were published with the title: Arts of the Sung and Yüan, edited by Maxwell K. Hearn and Judith G. Smith.

Fu, Shen and Marilyn Fu. Studies in Connoisseurship: Chinese Paintings from the Arthur M. Sackler Collection in New York and Princeton. Princeton: Art Museum, Princeton University, 1973.

Catalog of a traveling exhibition of Dr. Sackler's collection during 1973-75, the discussion of issues regarding connoisseurship and criteria for authenticity are very useful.

Giacalone, Vito. The Eccentric Painters of Yangzhou. New York: China House Gallery, 1990.

Catalog of an exhibition focusing on a group of Qing painters known as Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou.

Gulik, Robert H. van. Chinese Pictorial Art as Viewed by the Connoisseur. Rome: Istituto Italiano per Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1958.

As the additional title information indicates the work discusses the Ameans and methods of traditional Chinese connoisseurship of pictorial art, based upon a study of the art of mounting scrolls in China and Japan.@ The second part discusses brush strokes, pigments, basic principles for identifying scrolls, seals, and aspects of collecting. Still widely used, especially by painting conservators.

Harrist, Robert E. Painting and Private Life in Eleventh-century China: Mountain Villa by Li Gonglin. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

The focus of Chinese painting in the 11th century (Northern Song) shifted from the earlier works' shared heritage of political, religious and literary themes to reflections of personal experience, inspiration by the painters' restless imagination and intense observation of nature. The Mountain Villa, a handscroll by Li Gonglin (ca. 1041-1106), is, according to the author, most representative of the period.

Ho, Wai-kam, et al. The Chinese Scholar's Studio. New York: The Asia Society Galleries, 1987.

An exhibition catalog focusing on the 17th-century Chinese art of the scholar class, illustrating objects, many of them paintings, from the collections of the Shanghai Museum.

Lachman, Charles Henry. Evaluations of Sung Dynasty Painters of Renown: Liu Tao-ch'un's Sung-ch'ao ming-hua p'ing, [T'oung pao monographie ; 16], translated with an introduction by Charles Lachman. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1989.

Understanding of Chinese painting must be based, to a large extent, on historical records and writings by Chinese critics. This translation of a work written in 1059 consists of a collection of biographical sketches and critical comments for 91 painters of the 10th and 11th centuries. The work was originally the author's dissertation.

Laing, Ellen Johnston. An Index to Reproductions of Paintings by Twentieth Century Chinese Artists (Asian Studies Program publication ; no. 6). Eugene, OR: Asian Studies Program, University of Oregon, 1984.

Covers the time period of 1912 to around 1980 and includes about 3500 artists, listing their works reproduced in Chinese publications, and biographical information. These are mostly artists of traditional style.

Li, Chu-tsing. Trends in Modern Chinese Painting: the C. A. Drenowatz Collection (Artibus Asiae supplement ; 36). Ascona, Switzerland: Artibus Asiae, 1979.

Discussion of the Ming and Qing paintings in the Drenowatz collection was published in 1974 entitled A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines. This publication is concerned with  contemporary Chinese painters. The author outlines new elements of the 20th century Chinese painting, discusses traditionalism in Peking, innovation in Shanghai and modernization in Canton. Individual artists are discussed in detail. Their styles are mostly traditional.

Loehr, Max. The Great Painters of China. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

A concise survey of Chinese painting, with a bibliography.

Lust, John. Chinese Popular Prints [Handbook of Oriental Studies ; 4]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1996.

There has been more interest in Chinese woodblock prints but one can find very little scholarly work on the subject. This extensive work with bibliographical references and index gives a historical survey of Chinese popular prints, covering mainly the Ming and Qing periods, with three centers, Suzhou, Yangliuqing and Mianzhu. It provides extensive information on printmaking, types of popular prints, techniques, and some of the most popular images used in prints, such as the Eight Immortals, Door Gods, Fortune Gods, Kitchen God.

Maeda, Robert J. Two Sung Texts on Chinese Painting and the Landscape Styles of the 11th and 12th Centuries. New York: Garland, 1978.

Originally a Ph.D. thesis at Harvard in 1969, the work is a translation with annotations of two texts entitled Shanshui chunquanji (1121) by Han Zho, devoted to landscape painting, and Huaji (1167) by Deng Chun containing information on Emperor Huizong's painting academy in the later Northern Song period.

Munakata, Kiyohiko. Sacred Mountains in Chinese Art. Urbana: University of Illinois Press,1991.

A catalog of an exhibition at Krannert Art Museum and at the Metropolitan Museum, it analyzes the religious concepts surrounding the early development of landscape art and the secularization in later times of the depiction of mountains, which is significant for the study of Chinese painting.

Po, Sung-nien and David Johnson. Domesticated Deities and Auspicious Emblems: the Iconography of Everyday Life in Village China. Berkeley: Chinese Popular Culture Project, 1992.

Using popular prints and papercuts in the collection of Bo Songnian, the work represents a growing interest in Chinese popular culture with great regional diversity. These prints, especially New Year pictures, and papercuts used by ordinary people for religious and auspicious blessings as well as for home decoration, also reflect their lives and their aesthetic tastes.

_____. Chinese New Year Pictures. Beijing: Cultural Relics Pub. House, 1996.

Translated from Chinese, the work gives a general survey of Chinese New Year folk paintings and prints, consisting chiefly of colored illustrations.

Silbergeld, Jerome. Chinese Painting Style: Media, Methods, and Principles of Form. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.

Originally written for the author's students, the work focuses on painting techniques, introducing painting materials, format, elements of painting, and compositions.

The Single Brushstroke: 600 Years of Chinese Painting from the Ching Yüan Chai Collection. Vancouver, B.C.: Vancouver Art Gallery, 1985.

Catalog of an exhibition at Vancouver Art Gallery (whose responsibility had been exclusively for western art), showing for the first time works from James Cahill's private collection, with an introduction by James O. Caswell.

Siren, Osvald. Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and Principles. New York: Ronald Press, 1956-1958.

The 7-volume work is still a good reference source.

Solonin, K.Y. 19th Century Paintings of Life in China. Reading, U.K.: Garnet, 1995.

Catalog containing illustrations of paintings in the collection of the Institute of Oriental Studies in St. Petersburg, Russia, depicting life in China. The collections are called Bretschneider (1833-1901) albums.

Stanley-Baker, Joan. Transmission of Chinese Idealist Painting to Japan: Notes on the Early Phase (1661-1799). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1992.

Mainly deals with Chinese influence on Japanese painting.

Sullivan, Michael. Symbols of Eternity: The Art of Landscape Painting in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1979.

The book, grown out of the author's lectures at Stanford, gives an overview of the history of Chinese landscape painting from pre-Tang to the 20th century.

_____. Chinese Landscape Painting. V. II: The Sui and T'ang Dynasties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

A continuation of the author's earlier work, The Birth of Landscape Painting in China, published in 1962, covering the periods from 581 to 907.

_____. Three Perfections: Chinese Painting, Poetry and Calligraphy. New York: Braziller, 1980, 1999 reprint.

As the subtitle indicates, the work discusses the interrelationship of painting, poetry and calligraphy.

Weidner, Marsha. Painting and Patronage at the Mongol Court of China, 1260-1368. Ph.D. thesis, University of California at Berkeley, 1982.

The study discusses painting in the Yuan dynasty, the official collections, and imperial patronage, focusing on three Yuan artists.

_____. Views from Jade Terrace: Chinese Women Artists 1300-1912. Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art; New York: Rizzoli, 1988.

Catalog of a traveling exhibition displaying paintings of Chinese women artists.

Whitfield, Roderick. Fascination of Nature: Plants and Insects in Chinese Painting and Ceramics of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368). Seoul: Yekyong Publications, 1993.

Discusses the 14th-century artist Xie Zhufang and the motifs and themes in his work. Vol. 2 is the painter's work Jiankun shengyi issued in a folded handscroll.

Wu, Hung. The Double Screen: Medium and Representation in Chinese Painting. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

The work offers a different approach to understanding Chinese painting: A painting is not only a pictorial representation, but also has a physical form. The screen is used as example, that is, a screen can be an object, a painting medium, a pictorial representation, or all three.

Wu, Tung. Tales from the Land of Dragons: 1000 Years of Chinese Painting. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1997.

Published in conjunction with the 1997 exhibition at the Museum, one of the earliest and finest collections, the first comprehensive exhibition of early Chinese painting in nearly a century. 153 pieces, including some earliest and one only extant example of the kind, were on display.

_____. Masterpieces of Chinese Painting from the Museum of Fine Arts Boston: Tang Through Yuan Dynasties. Tokyo: Otsuka Kogeisha, 1996. 2-volume deluxe catalog of the collection, upon which most of the entries in the above exhibition catalog are based.

Yü, Fei-an. Chinese Painting Colors: Studies of Their Preparation and Application in Traditional and Modern Times [Chung-kuo hua yen se ti yen chiu. English], translated by Jerome Silbergeld and Amy McNair. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.

The work provides information on the varieties and nature of Chinese painting colors, including mineral and plant pigments, gold and silver, the development of Chinese painting colors, the characteristics of Chinese ink, folk artisans' and early masters' use of colors, modern methods, etc. The translators' introduction is worth reading for its explanation of why there was so little use of color in Chinese painting.

Portrait/Figure Painting:

Brinker, Helmut. Shussan Shaka-Darstellungen in der Malerei Ostasiens: Untersuchungen zu einem Bildthema der buddhistischen Figurenmalerei. NewYork: Peter Lang, 1983.

Originally the author's thesis, the work is an illustrated study of the iconography, typology and historical development in depiction of the birth of Buddha in Chinese and Japanese painting.

_____. ACh'an portraits in a landscape.@ Archives of Asian Art 27 (1973-74), p. 8-29.

One of the earlier writings on Chinese portraiture.

Lawton, Thomas. Freer Gallery of Art Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition. Ii. Chinese Figure Painting. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1973.

The work provides an excellent guide to some of the finest Chinese figure paintings in the Freer collection, with each object thoroughly described, researched and documented.

Seckel, Dietrich. Das Porträt in Ostasien. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1997-1999.

This multi-volume work deals with portrait painting in Asia, including China.

Spiro, Audrey G. Contemplating the Ancients: Aesthetic and Social Issues in Early Chinese Portraiture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Based on her dissertation Early Chinese Portraiture: Character as Social Ideal, the work describes the portraiture on the 4th and 5th century tomb reliefs and expounds on the nature and meaning of them.

Stuart, Jan. ACalling back the ancestor's shadow: Chinese ritual and commemorative portraits in the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.@ Oriental Art, vol. 43, no. 3 (Autumn 1997), p. 8-17.

Describes a recent acquisition of Chinese ancestor portraits, a rarely researched subject.

Vinograd, Richard. Boundaries of the Self: Chinese Portraits, 1600-1900. Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

The work gives the definitions of two kinds of portraits: portrait as effigy and portrait as emblem, and describes the period of the 17th-19th centuries when there was a vast production of painted portraits in China, the majority of which were posthumous ancestor portraits. But there was also an explosion of informal portraits commissioned by or for living people. The book deals with this type.



Prepared by the Library of the Freer Gallery of Art
and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
Smithsonian Institution

revised 11 October 2000

Smithsonian Information
202.633.1000 (voice)


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